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Table 4

Effect of GAC on heavy metal removal by the filter systems

MetalUnitLoDRaw waterWFS1 with GAC
WFS1 without GAC
WFS4 with GAC
WFS4 without GAC
Influent conc.Effluent conc.% removalEffluent conc.% removalEffluent conc.% removalEffluent conc.% removal
As μg/L 0.05 0.52 0.19 64.09 0.49 6.85 0.18 65.05 0.46 11.11 
Al μg/L 1.67 46.87 4.50 90.40 1.80 96.16 3.56 92.40 1.81 96.15 
Cd μg/L 0.002 0.012 0.007 45.77 0.036 ** 0.003 73.65 0.089 ** 
Cr μg/L 0.18 0.27 <LoD 62.80 0.21 21.85 <LoD 62.80 0.18 31.35 
Cu μg/L 1.69 10.44 1.82 82.57 5.49 47.39 0.60 94.26 9.91 5.15 
Fe μg/L 0.97 331.80 0.68 99.80 4.26 98.72 2.00 99.40 18.43 94.45 
Pb μg/L 0.01 0.25 <LoD 96.39 0.05 79.90 0.02 93.83 0.07 71.94 
Hg μg/L 0.02 <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD 
Mn μg/L 0.29 0.69 108.18 ** 31.53 ** 147.89 ** 95.18 ** 
Ni μg/L 0.05 0.80 0.05 93.21 4.39 ** 0.09 88.62 11.36 ** 
Zn μg/L 0.16 2.52 0.31 87.64 3.36 ** <LoD 93.65 534.66 ** 
MetalUnitLoDRaw waterWFS1 with GAC
WFS1 without GAC
WFS4 with GAC
WFS4 without GAC
Influent conc.Effluent conc.% removalEffluent conc.% removalEffluent conc.% removalEffluent conc.% removal
As μg/L 0.05 0.52 0.19 64.09 0.49 6.85 0.18 65.05 0.46 11.11 
Al μg/L 1.67 46.87 4.50 90.40 1.80 96.16 3.56 92.40 1.81 96.15 
Cd μg/L 0.002 0.012 0.007 45.77 0.036 ** 0.003 73.65 0.089 ** 
Cr μg/L 0.18 0.27 <LoD 62.80 0.21 21.85 <LoD 62.80 0.18 31.35 
Cu μg/L 1.69 10.44 1.82 82.57 5.49 47.39 0.60 94.26 9.91 5.15 
Fe μg/L 0.97 331.80 0.68 99.80 4.26 98.72 2.00 99.40 18.43 94.45 
Pb μg/L 0.01 0.25 <LoD 96.39 0.05 79.90 0.02 93.83 0.07 71.94 
Hg μg/L 0.02 <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD 
Mn μg/L 0.29 0.69 108.18 ** 31.53 ** 147.89 ** 95.18 ** 
Ni μg/L 0.05 0.80 0.05 93.21 4.39 ** 0.09 88.62 11.36 ** 
Zn μg/L 0.16 2.52 0.31 87.64 3.36 ** <LoD 93.65 534.66 ** 

LoD = limit of detection; ** = increase in concentration over influent level. Metal sampling was done on 5th September 2018.

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