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Table 5

Bacteriological and physical parameters raw water, systems with and without GAC and drinking water standards

Bacteriological and physical parametersNRaw waterGravity-driven filter systems with and without GAC
Drinking water standards
WFS1 with GACWFS 1 without GACWFS 4 with GACWFS 4 without GACSANS241WHO (2017a) 
Color Yellow to Brownish Pleasing and clear Objectionable Pleasing and clear Objectionable ≤15 mg/L Pt-Co ≤5 Hazen units 
Odor Odorous Odorless Objectionable Odorless Objectionable  Unobjectionable 
Taste Sour Acceptable Objectionable Acceptable Objectionable  Unobjectionable 
Fecal coliforms (CFU/100 ml) 1,420 2,200 
E. coli (CFU/100 ml) 620 260 
pH (pH units) 7.8 ± 0.03 8.7 ± 0.06 7.8 ± 0.06 8.2 ± 0.33 7.8 ± 0.05 ≥5 to ≤9.7 6.5–9.0 
Conductivity (μS/cm) 255.3 ± 4.0 487.7 ± 17.6 287.0 ± 10.6 343.7 ± 14.0 258.7 ± 5.5 ≤1,700 2,500 
TDS (mg/L) 163.4 ± 2.1 312.1 ± 9.2 183.7 ± 5.5 219.9 ± 7.3 165.5 ± 2.9 ≤1,200 1,000 
TSS (mg/L) 32.0 ± 0.0 2.0 ± 1.4 8.3 ± 1.7 0.3 ± 0.01 1.3 ± 0.02  0.1 
Turbidity (NTU), aesthetic 19.9 ± 0.0 1.5 ± 0.03 6.3 ± 0.5 0.3 ± 0.01 1.0 ± 0.01 ≤5 
Bacteriological and physical parametersNRaw waterGravity-driven filter systems with and without GAC
Drinking water standards
WFS1 with GACWFS 1 without GACWFS 4 with GACWFS 4 without GACSANS241WHO (2017a) 
Color Yellow to Brownish Pleasing and clear Objectionable Pleasing and clear Objectionable ≤15 mg/L Pt-Co ≤5 Hazen units 
Odor Odorous Odorless Objectionable Odorless Objectionable  Unobjectionable 
Taste Sour Acceptable Objectionable Acceptable Objectionable  Unobjectionable 
Fecal coliforms (CFU/100 ml) 1,420 2,200 
E. coli (CFU/100 ml) 620 260 
pH (pH units) 7.8 ± 0.03 8.7 ± 0.06 7.8 ± 0.06 8.2 ± 0.33 7.8 ± 0.05 ≥5 to ≤9.7 6.5–9.0 
Conductivity (μS/cm) 255.3 ± 4.0 487.7 ± 17.6 287.0 ± 10.6 343.7 ± 14.0 258.7 ± 5.5 ≤1,700 2,500 
TDS (mg/L) 163.4 ± 2.1 312.1 ± 9.2 183.7 ± 5.5 219.9 ± 7.3 165.5 ± 2.9 ≤1,200 1,000 
TSS (mg/L) 32.0 ± 0.0 2.0 ± 1.4 8.3 ± 1.7 0.3 ± 0.01 1.3 ± 0.02  0.1 
Turbidity (NTU), aesthetic 19.9 ± 0.0 1.5 ± 0.03 6.3 ± 0.5 0.3 ± 0.01 1.0 ± 0.01 ≤5 

±= standard deviation.

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