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Table 2

Published proximate analysis results of char from slow-pyrolysis of faecal sludge and faeces, and hydrochar from HTC of faecal sludge and faeces

SourceCalorific value (MJ/kg)Ash content (% dw)Volatile matter (% dw)Fixed carbon (% dw)
Faecal sludge char 
 Liu et al. (2014)  NA 26.3–62.5 6.3–60.5 13.2–31.2 
 Mwamlima et al. (2017)  4.7–8.9 63.5–78.6 11.4–17.9 9.5–18.5 
 Gold et al. (2018)  8.8–12.4 54.5–73.8 6.7–26.1 18.8–23.3 
 Hafford et al. (2019)  8.6–14.5 55.0–67.9 21.9–30.9 10.2–14.1 
Faecal sludge hydrochar 
 Koottatep et al. (2016)  16.1–28.5 33.2–41.4 39.8–44.8 12.6–24.6 
 Afolabi et al. (2017) a 19.3–25.2 21.1–23.6 76.4–78.9 NA 
Faeces char 
 Ward et al. (2014)  13.83–25.57 20.0–50.0 NA NA 
Faeces hydrochar 
 Afolabi et al. (2017)  24.9–25.6 20.8–24.5 75.5–79.2 NA 
SourceCalorific value (MJ/kg)Ash content (% dw)Volatile matter (% dw)Fixed carbon (% dw)
Faecal sludge char 
 Liu et al. (2014)  NA 26.3–62.5 6.3–60.5 13.2–31.2 
 Mwamlima et al. (2017)  4.7–8.9 63.5–78.6 11.4–17.9 9.5–18.5 
 Gold et al. (2018)  8.8–12.4 54.5–73.8 6.7–26.1 18.8–23.3 
 Hafford et al. (2019)  8.6–14.5 55.0–67.9 21.9–30.9 10.2–14.1 
Faecal sludge hydrochar 
 Koottatep et al. (2016)  16.1–28.5 33.2–41.4 39.8–44.8 12.6–24.6 
 Afolabi et al. (2017) a 19.3–25.2 21.1–23.6 76.4–78.9 NA 
Faeces char 
 Ward et al. (2014)  13.83–25.57 20.0–50.0 NA NA 
Faeces hydrochar 
 Afolabi et al. (2017)  24.9–25.6 20.8–24.5 75.5–79.2 NA 

NA means that the data were not available. The ranges summarize results from varying operating conditions (e.g. temperature and hold time).

aAuthors refer to substance as a ‘human faecal sludge’, which includes fresh faeces, urine, toilet paper, and flush water. The reported characteristics resemble that of fresh faeces.

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