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Table 1.

Demand and supply and major issues in selected cities of HKH Himalaya.

S. no.CitySupply (Million Liters Per Day (MLD))Demand (Million Liters Per Day (MLD))Major issues
1. Kabul (Afghanistan) 52.14 – Limited distribution due to high energy cost. Only 20% of total population is supplied with water 
2. Quetta (Pakistan) 106 170 Rapid population growth, low rainfall, ground water depletion, water deficit of 50% 
3. Shimla (India) 54.5 64.7 Lack of new sources, high tourist influx, leakages in pipelines. 84.2% demand is met 
4. Mussoorie (India) 7.67 14.4 Poor infrastructure, tanker economy, high tourist influx, recharge zones degraded 
5. Nainital (India) 20.5 18.2 Depletion of lake level which is the main source of water, encroachment over recharge zones, increase in impermeable areas 
6. Kathmandu (Nepal) 86 280 Rapid influx of migrants, tourist influx, poor infrastructure, poor governance 
7. Xining (China) – – Water shortage deterioration water quality 
8. Thimpu – 9.9 Water contamination and shortage of water increase in impermeable surface causing flooding 
S. no.CitySupply (Million Liters Per Day (MLD))Demand (Million Liters Per Day (MLD))Major issues
1. Kabul (Afghanistan) 52.14 – Limited distribution due to high energy cost. Only 20% of total population is supplied with water 
2. Quetta (Pakistan) 106 170 Rapid population growth, low rainfall, ground water depletion, water deficit of 50% 
3. Shimla (India) 54.5 64.7 Lack of new sources, high tourist influx, leakages in pipelines. 84.2% demand is met 
4. Mussoorie (India) 7.67 14.4 Poor infrastructure, tanker economy, high tourist influx, recharge zones degraded 
5. Nainital (India) 20.5 18.2 Depletion of lake level which is the main source of water, encroachment over recharge zones, increase in impermeable areas 
6. Kathmandu (Nepal) 86 280 Rapid influx of migrants, tourist influx, poor infrastructure, poor governance 
7. Xining (China) – – Water shortage deterioration water quality 
8. Thimpu – 9.9 Water contamination and shortage of water increase in impermeable surface causing flooding 
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