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Table 1

Theoretical and actual friction losses for modified and original emitters

EmitterDischargeLateral length (m)Theoretical friction losses (m) Hazen– Williams (C = 140)Actual friction losses (m)
Modified emitter 2 lh−1 25 2.19 2.33 
50 4.33 6.5 
75 7.46 8.5 
4 lh−1 25 2.19 2.2 
50 4.33 5.1 
75 7.46 6.5 
Original emitter 2 lh−1 25 2.19 2.5 
50 4.33 6.4 
75 7.46 8.6 
4 lh−1 25 2.19 2.3 
50 4.33 
75 7.46 6.5 
EmitterDischargeLateral length (m)Theoretical friction losses (m) Hazen– Williams (C = 140)Actual friction losses (m)
Modified emitter 2 lh−1 25 2.19 2.33 
50 4.33 6.5 
75 7.46 8.5 
4 lh−1 25 2.19 2.2 
50 4.33 5.1 
75 7.46 6.5 
Original emitter 2 lh−1 25 2.19 2.5 
50 4.33 6.4 
75 7.46 8.6 
4 lh−1 25 2.19 2.3 
50 4.33 
75 7.46 6.5 
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