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The precision, recall and F score values obtained from the application of the automatic detection algorithm to the training and test data sets are given in Table 1. The detection algorithm performed well for SH1, SH2, SH3, SH4, SH5 and SH7. The high F score values for these homes were possible because the sound of flow in the recordings was generally louder, allowing higher energy detection threshold values to be used. Higher threshold values reduced false positives substantially, and contributed to overall good detection performance. On the contrary, the performance of the detection algorithm was poorer for homes that experienced low water pressure on a regular basis, typically during peak demand periods. According to the homeowners, SH8, SH9 and SH10 experienced significantly reduced water pressure during the morning. These three homes were located in the same neighbourhood near a stadium that was still under construction during the study period. It is likely that water pressure in the entire neighbourhood was affected by water use at the construction site. Lowering the threshold to detect the quieter flow sound in the recordings correspondingly increased false positives and reduced the precision.

Table 1

Performance of the detection algorithm

Study homeTraining dataset
Test dataset
Precision (%)Recall (%)F scorePrecision (%)Recall (%)F score
SH1 92.4 92.5 92.4 97.2 82.4 89.2 
SH2 96.1 100.0 98.0 96.0 99.9 97.9 
SH3 75.9 96.7 85.1 77.6 94.8 85.3 
SH4 97.2 99.3 98.2 93.0 96.1 94.5 
SH5 98.7 98.7 98.7 98.6 99.0 98.8 
SH6 83.2 77.9 80.5 88.2 68.5 77.1 
SH7 97.6 98.9 98.3 98.5 91.0 94.6 
SH8 51.5 82.6 63.4 78.2 68.7 73.1 
SH9 59.8 49.7 54.3 81.7 37.5 51.4 
SH10 63.2 88.7 73.8 67.9 80.1 73.5 
Study homeTraining dataset
Test dataset
Precision (%)Recall (%)F scorePrecision (%)Recall (%)F score
SH1 92.4 92.5 92.4 97.2 82.4 89.2 
SH2 96.1 100.0 98.0 96.0 99.9 97.9 
SH3 75.9 96.7 85.1 77.6 94.8 85.3 
SH4 97.2 99.3 98.2 93.0 96.1 94.5 
SH5 98.7 98.7 98.7 98.6 99.0 98.8 
SH6 83.2 77.9 80.5 88.2 68.5 77.1 
SH7 97.6 98.9 98.3 98.5 91.0 94.6 
SH8 51.5 82.6 63.4 78.2 68.7 73.1 
SH9 59.8 49.7 54.3 81.7 37.5 51.4 
SH10 63.2 88.7 73.8 67.9 80.1 73.5 

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