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Table 1

Tests on sodium alginate and various PVA-alginate beads

Composition (%)
Cross linking (h)
Experiment no.Bead materialPolymerizationMixing temp.SAaPVAb1stc2nddEvaluation method
Exp0 SA – 60 °C – – 0–2 points were given to each experiment by five physical tests. Then total marks of the points obtained from the tests were compared. 
Exp1-a PVA-SA 1500 (PVA #1) 60 °C 1.50 10 
Exp1-b PVA-SA 1500 (PVA #1) 60 °C 10 
Exp2-a PVA-SA 1637 (PVA #2) 60 °C 1.50 
Exp2-b PVA-SA 1637 (PVA #2) 60 °C 1.50 10 
Exp3-a PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 60 °C Physical appearance 
Exp3-b PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 60 °C Agglomeration 
Exp3-c PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 60 °C 10 Bead formation 
Exp4-a PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 10 0.5 Physical strength by centrifugation 
Exp4-b PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 10 0.5 Swelling in water 
Exp4-c PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 10 
Exp4-d PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 10 
Exp5-a PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 0.5 
Exp5-b PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 0.5 
Exp5-c PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 10 0.5 
Composition (%)
Cross linking (h)
Experiment no.Bead materialPolymerizationMixing temp.SAaPVAb1stc2nddEvaluation method
Exp0 SA – 60 °C – – 0–2 points were given to each experiment by five physical tests. Then total marks of the points obtained from the tests were compared. 
Exp1-a PVA-SA 1500 (PVA #1) 60 °C 1.50 10 
Exp1-b PVA-SA 1500 (PVA #1) 60 °C 10 
Exp2-a PVA-SA 1637 (PVA #2) 60 °C 1.50 
Exp2-b PVA-SA 1637 (PVA #2) 60 °C 1.50 10 
Exp3-a PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 60 °C Physical appearance 
Exp3-b PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 60 °C Agglomeration 
Exp3-c PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 60 °C 10 Bead formation 
Exp4-a PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 10 0.5 Physical strength by centrifugation 
Exp4-b PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 10 0.5 Swelling in water 
Exp4-c PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 10 
Exp4-d PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 10 
Exp5-a PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 0.5 
Exp5-b PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 0.5 
Exp5-c PVA-SA 2270 (PVA #3) 105 °C 10 0.5 

aSA = Sodium Alginate.

bPVA = Polyvinyl Alcohol.

c1st cross linking solution = 4w/v% CaCl2 for Exp0, 4w/v% CaCl2 + 7w/v% H3BO3 for Exp1–Exp5.

d2nd cross linking solution = Na2SO4 0.5M for Exp1–Exp5.

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