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Table 3

Attributes of the selected BP-use cases in farming communities in Nepal and Malawi

Nepal
Malawi
Sokhu BesiManthaliLeleMichiruTedzaniKachere cooperative
Distance from aQysta 88 km 129 km 16 km 3 km 60 km 396 km 
Travelling time ∼ 3.5 h ∼ 5 h ∼ 1 h 15 min ∼ 2 h ∼ 6.5 h 
Topography River bottom valley River bottom valley Sub-valley River bottom valley River bottom valley Shire river basin 
Accessibility Next to national highway Next to regional road Next to district road Next to district road Next to footpath Next to dirt road 
Main water source Sun Koshi river Tamakoshi river Unnamed river Likhubula river Shire river Chafumbi river 
Farm size 0.4 ha 1 ha 0.2 ha ∼ 1 ha 4 ha (partly cultivated) ∼ 1.5 ha 
BP presence time ∼ 3 y ∼ 2 y ∼ 1.5 y ∼ 3 m ∼ 2 m ∼ 3 m 
Facilitating conditions for BP 
  • – Closeness to river (∼170 m)

  • – Stream speed

 
  • – Closeness to river (∼80 m)

  • – Stream speed

 
  • – Closeness to river (∼105 m)

 
  • – Closeness to river (∼30 m)

 
  • – Closeness to river (∼80 m)

 
  • – Closeness to river (∼120 m)

  • – Stream speed

 
Hampering conditions for BP 
  • – Presence of diesel water pumps

 
  • – Groundwater sources

 
  • – Stream speed

  • – Need of a weir

  • – River floods

 
  • – Stream speed

  • – Changing water depth

  • – Need of a weir

 
  • – Stream speed

  • – Floating weed

  • – Changing water depth

 
  • – Lack of irrigation equipment

 
BP ownership 
  • – 1 private

 
  • – 1 private/ − 1 lent

 
  • – 1 lent

 
  • – 1 lent (demonstration)

 
  • – 1 lent (for testing)

 
  • – 1 private

 
BP conditions Partially functional and operative Fully functional yet not operative Fully functional yet inoperative Partially functional and operative Partially functional and inoperative Fully functional and operative 
Farmer attitude on BP Willing to keep using it BP less useful than other water pumps BP does not provide any benefit Willing to keep using it Willing to keep using it Willing to keep using it 
Impact of the BP The farm relies on the BP None (BPs not in use) None (BPs not in use) The farm relies on the BP None (BP not in use) The farm relies on the BP 
Most preferred existing BME 
  • – Subsidies

  • – Clean energy

 
  • – Subsidies

  • – Zero operation costs

 
  • – Clean energy

  • – Easy to install and use

  • – Subsidies

 
  • – Flexible payment methods

  • – Zero operation costs

  • – Clean energy

  • – No human labor

 
  • – Flexible payment methods

  • – Zero operation costs

  • – Clean energy

 
  • – Flexible payment methods

  • – Zero operation costs

  • – No human labor

 
Most preferred proposed BME 
  • – Extra services

  • – Entrepreneurial training

  • – Creation of jobs

 
  • – Extra services

  • – Creation of jobs

 
  • – Nothing

 
  • – Extra services (reservoirs)

  • – Provision of (basic) infrastructure

 
  • – Nothing

 
  • – Nothing

 
Least preferred existing BME 
  • – Complex maintenance

  • – Savings in operation

  • – Pumped pressure

 
  • – Pumped pressure

  • – Perceived saved labor

 
  • – Maintenance provided by an external organization

 
  • – Weight and size

  • – Easy to steal/vandalism

 
  • – BP does not operate yet

 
  • – Pumped flow rate

 
Least preferred proposed BME 
  • – Paying for extra services

 
  • – Non-ownership models

  • – Entrepreneurial training

  • – Paying for extra services

 
  • – Entrepreneurial training

  • – Intervention of external organizations

  • – Paying for extra services

 
N/A N/A N/A 
Attitude of other farmers on the BP 
  • – Not enough pumped pressure nor flowrate

  • – Diesel water pumps are more useful

 
N/A N/A 
  • – Curiosity about the BP operation

  • – Skeptical about BP efficiency, though they think the owner made a good decision

 
  • – Curiosity about the BP operation

 
N/A 
Nepal
Malawi
Sokhu BesiManthaliLeleMichiruTedzaniKachere cooperative
Distance from aQysta 88 km 129 km 16 km 3 km 60 km 396 km 
Travelling time ∼ 3.5 h ∼ 5 h ∼ 1 h 15 min ∼ 2 h ∼ 6.5 h 
Topography River bottom valley River bottom valley Sub-valley River bottom valley River bottom valley Shire river basin 
Accessibility Next to national highway Next to regional road Next to district road Next to district road Next to footpath Next to dirt road 
Main water source Sun Koshi river Tamakoshi river Unnamed river Likhubula river Shire river Chafumbi river 
Farm size 0.4 ha 1 ha 0.2 ha ∼ 1 ha 4 ha (partly cultivated) ∼ 1.5 ha 
BP presence time ∼ 3 y ∼ 2 y ∼ 1.5 y ∼ 3 m ∼ 2 m ∼ 3 m 
Facilitating conditions for BP 
  • – Closeness to river (∼170 m)

  • – Stream speed

 
  • – Closeness to river (∼80 m)

  • – Stream speed

 
  • – Closeness to river (∼105 m)

 
  • – Closeness to river (∼30 m)

 
  • – Closeness to river (∼80 m)

 
  • – Closeness to river (∼120 m)

  • – Stream speed

 
Hampering conditions for BP 
  • – Presence of diesel water pumps

 
  • – Groundwater sources

 
  • – Stream speed

  • – Need of a weir

  • – River floods

 
  • – Stream speed

  • – Changing water depth

  • – Need of a weir

 
  • – Stream speed

  • – Floating weed

  • – Changing water depth

 
  • – Lack of irrigation equipment

 
BP ownership 
  • – 1 private

 
  • – 1 private/ − 1 lent

 
  • – 1 lent

 
  • – 1 lent (demonstration)

 
  • – 1 lent (for testing)

 
  • – 1 private

 
BP conditions Partially functional and operative Fully functional yet not operative Fully functional yet inoperative Partially functional and operative Partially functional and inoperative Fully functional and operative 
Farmer attitude on BP Willing to keep using it BP less useful than other water pumps BP does not provide any benefit Willing to keep using it Willing to keep using it Willing to keep using it 
Impact of the BP The farm relies on the BP None (BPs not in use) None (BPs not in use) The farm relies on the BP None (BP not in use) The farm relies on the BP 
Most preferred existing BME 
  • – Subsidies

  • – Clean energy

 
  • – Subsidies

  • – Zero operation costs

 
  • – Clean energy

  • – Easy to install and use

  • – Subsidies

 
  • – Flexible payment methods

  • – Zero operation costs

  • – Clean energy

  • – No human labor

 
  • – Flexible payment methods

  • – Zero operation costs

  • – Clean energy

 
  • – Flexible payment methods

  • – Zero operation costs

  • – No human labor

 
Most preferred proposed BME 
  • – Extra services

  • – Entrepreneurial training

  • – Creation of jobs

 
  • – Extra services

  • – Creation of jobs

 
  • – Nothing

 
  • – Extra services (reservoirs)

  • – Provision of (basic) infrastructure

 
  • – Nothing

 
  • – Nothing

 
Least preferred existing BME 
  • – Complex maintenance

  • – Savings in operation

  • – Pumped pressure

 
  • – Pumped pressure

  • – Perceived saved labor

 
  • – Maintenance provided by an external organization

 
  • – Weight and size

  • – Easy to steal/vandalism

 
  • – BP does not operate yet

 
  • – Pumped flow rate

 
Least preferred proposed BME 
  • – Paying for extra services

 
  • – Non-ownership models

  • – Entrepreneurial training

  • – Paying for extra services

 
  • – Entrepreneurial training

  • – Intervention of external organizations

  • – Paying for extra services

 
N/A N/A N/A 
Attitude of other farmers on the BP 
  • – Not enough pumped pressure nor flowrate

  • – Diesel water pumps are more useful

 
N/A N/A 
  • – Curiosity about the BP operation

  • – Skeptical about BP efficiency, though they think the owner made a good decision

 
  • – Curiosity about the BP operation

 
N/A 
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