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Table 1

Characteristics of pollution sources of Cau River

Area of Cau RiverProvincePopulation
Main waste sources
Number (1,000 people)Density (person/km2)Quantity (source)Volume (m3/year)Waste sources
Upstream Bac Kan 319 65.65 10 449 Residential area, agricultural production 
Midstream Thai Nguyen 1,364 382.84 16 37,671 Residential area, mining area, agricultural production, industrial zone 
Downstream Bac Giang 1,715 448.13 17 73,339 Residential area, craft villages, agricultural production, industrial zone 
Bac Ninh 1,446 1,756.77 20 26,733 
Entire river 4,844 663.35 63 138,192  
Area of Cau RiverProvincePopulation
Main waste sources
Number (1,000 people)Density (person/km2)Quantity (source)Volume (m3/year)Waste sources
Upstream Bac Kan 319 65.65 10 449 Residential area, agricultural production 
Midstream Thai Nguyen 1,364 382.84 16 37,671 Residential area, mining area, agricultural production, industrial zone 
Downstream Bac Giang 1,715 448.13 17 73,339 Residential area, craft villages, agricultural production, industrial zone 
Bac Ninh 1,446 1,756.77 20 26,733 
Entire river 4,844 663.35 63 138,192  
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