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Table 1

Monitoring parameters (turbidity, TOC, UV254 and PARAFAC outputs) removal from raw to the final water in plants in South Africa and Belgium

Turbidity removal from raw to the final water (%)
TOC removal from raw to the final water (%)
UV254 removal from raw to the final water (%)
PARAFAC components removed from raw water to final water (%)
WTPsMeasuredLiterature referenceMeasuredLiterature referenceMeasuredLiterature referenceTFFmax1Fmax2Fmax3Literature reference
Plant A: raw (surface water) – coagulation – settling – SF (sand filtration) – final 59.30  46.44 NOM 50% for raw water with 3.8 mg/L DOC (Callegari et al. 2017); TOC 47% for raw water with 5.6 mg/l (Matilainen et al. 2002); 48 .70 (Sillanpaa et al. 2018) 76.67  72.25 75.38 100.00 9.12  
Plant B1: raw – coagulation – settling – SF – final   26.62  71.80 70.00 (Sillanpaa et al. 2018) 59.44 47.59 56.03 89.43  
Plant F: raw (surface water) – coagulation – settling – SF – final 99.05  60.72 TOC 68% (Nissinen et al. 2001) 81.82  89.22 86.62 100.00 80.04 Humic fractions 91% (Nissinen et al. 2001). TF 86% (HA-like, tyrosine-like, protein-like, tryp-like) (Markechová et al. 2013) 
Plant I: raw (surface water) – coagulation – DAF – final winter 75.66, summer 97.98  winter 0.51, summer 29.59  winter -, summer 38.10 36.10 (Sillanpaa et al. 2018) 41.77 44.32 27.34 45.37 Humic substances 44% (Volk et al. 2005) 
Plant C and D: raw (surface water) – pre-ozonation – coagulation – DAF – post-ozonation – SF – final winter 99.40, summer 99.68      69.30 59.81 58.38 83.34 TF ∼50–70% (HA-like and protein-like), (Baghoth & Amy 2012). humic substances 65% (Sillanpaa et al. 2018) 
Plant E: raw (surface water) – aeration – coagulation – SF – final winter 89.67, summer 98.70  winter, summer 32.10    50.68 60.27 52.34 31.81  
Plant F: raw (surface water) – coagulation – settling – SF – final winter 74.74, summer 74.98  winter 0.29, summer  winter -, summer 33.33  49.94 61.61 46.90 56.28  
Plant G: raw (surface water) – nitrification pond – SF – ultra-filtration – AC filtration – final 94.33 Turbidity 95% for raw water with 5.5 FTU (Matilainen et al. 2002) 100.00 NOM 90% for raw water with TOC >10 mg/L (Volk et al. 2005) 90 90.00 (Sillanpaa et al. 2018) 77.98 84.33 87.30   
Plant H: raw – coagulation – DAF – SF – AC – final 99.75  100.00  78.95  74.34 79.21 79.37 20.54  
Turbidity removal from raw to the final water (%)
TOC removal from raw to the final water (%)
UV254 removal from raw to the final water (%)
PARAFAC components removed from raw water to final water (%)
WTPsMeasuredLiterature referenceMeasuredLiterature referenceMeasuredLiterature referenceTFFmax1Fmax2Fmax3Literature reference
Plant A: raw (surface water) – coagulation – settling – SF (sand filtration) – final 59.30  46.44 NOM 50% for raw water with 3.8 mg/L DOC (Callegari et al. 2017); TOC 47% for raw water with 5.6 mg/l (Matilainen et al. 2002); 48 .70 (Sillanpaa et al. 2018) 76.67  72.25 75.38 100.00 9.12  
Plant B1: raw – coagulation – settling – SF – final   26.62  71.80 70.00 (Sillanpaa et al. 2018) 59.44 47.59 56.03 89.43  
Plant F: raw (surface water) – coagulation – settling – SF – final 99.05  60.72 TOC 68% (Nissinen et al. 2001) 81.82  89.22 86.62 100.00 80.04 Humic fractions 91% (Nissinen et al. 2001). TF 86% (HA-like, tyrosine-like, protein-like, tryp-like) (Markechová et al. 2013) 
Plant I: raw (surface water) – coagulation – DAF – final winter 75.66, summer 97.98  winter 0.51, summer 29.59  winter -, summer 38.10 36.10 (Sillanpaa et al. 2018) 41.77 44.32 27.34 45.37 Humic substances 44% (Volk et al. 2005) 
Plant C and D: raw (surface water) – pre-ozonation – coagulation – DAF – post-ozonation – SF – final winter 99.40, summer 99.68      69.30 59.81 58.38 83.34 TF ∼50–70% (HA-like and protein-like), (Baghoth & Amy 2012). humic substances 65% (Sillanpaa et al. 2018) 
Plant E: raw (surface water) – aeration – coagulation – SF – final winter 89.67, summer 98.70  winter, summer 32.10    50.68 60.27 52.34 31.81  
Plant F: raw (surface water) – coagulation – settling – SF – final winter 74.74, summer 74.98  winter 0.29, summer  winter -, summer 33.33  49.94 61.61 46.90 56.28  
Plant G: raw (surface water) – nitrification pond – SF – ultra-filtration – AC filtration – final 94.33 Turbidity 95% for raw water with 5.5 FTU (Matilainen et al. 2002) 100.00 NOM 90% for raw water with TOC >10 mg/L (Volk et al. 2005) 90 90.00 (Sillanpaa et al. 2018) 77.98 84.33 87.30   
Plant H: raw – coagulation – DAF – SF – AC – final 99.75  100.00  78.95  74.34 79.21 79.37 20.54  

DAF, dissolved air flotation; DOC, dissolved organic carbon; TF, total fluorescence.

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