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Table 5

Mathematical models/equations for various isotherms used in the study

Sr.IsothermMathematical equationRef.
1. Langmuir  Jalees et al. (2019)  
2. Freundlich  
3. Temkin  
4. Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R)  
5. Flory–Huggins  
Sr.IsothermMathematical equationRef.
1. Langmuir  Jalees et al. (2019)  
2. Freundlich  
3. Temkin  
4. Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R)  
5. Flory–Huggins  

Equation (1): 1Ce: Equilibrium concentration of adsorbate (mg/L); qe: amount of metal adsorbed per gram of adsorbate at equilibrium; qm: maximum monolayer coverage capacity (mg/g); b: Langmuir isotherm constant.

Equation (2): Kf: Freundlich isotherm constant; n: adsorption intensity.

Equation (3): β: Temkin constant.

Equation (4): qs: theoretical isotherm saturation capacity; Kad: Dubnin–Radushkevich isotherm constant; ɛ: Dubnin–Radushkevich.

Equation (5): θ: degree of surface coverage; n: number of ions occupying adsorption sites; KFH: Flory–Huggin isotherm constant.

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