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Table 1

Current status of wastewater treatment in Crete (adapted from Tzanakakis et al. 2020)

Population servedNo. of operating WWTPsCapacity, hm3/yrReused, hm3/yrPotential reuse opportunitiesComments
<2,000 67 3.90 0.75 Agricultural irrigation Numerous additional small projects (more than 650a) serving less than 2,000 persons are in various stages of planning and development. When completed, these treatment plants will serve 15–20% of the total population of Crete. 
2,000–5,000 15 4.65 0.90 Agricultural irrigation and landscape irrigation Two more plants are under implementation and three are under construction. 
5,000–15,000 10 8.90 2.25 Agricultural irrigation, landscape irrigation, and groundwater recharge. One more plant remains under implementation and another one is under construction. When those treatment plants (including the above) are completed, the total population served will rise above 80%. 
15,000–100,000 12.00 0.55 Agricultural irrigation, landscape irrigation, groundwater recharge, and indirect and direct potable reuse  
100,000–150,000 10.20  Agricultural irrigation and landscape irrigation  
>150,000 14.50 1.00 Agricultural irrigation, landscape irrigation, groundwater recharge, and indirect and direct potable reuse  
Total 99 54.15b 5.45c   
Population servedNo. of operating WWTPsCapacity, hm3/yrReused, hm3/yrPotential reuse opportunitiesComments
<2,000 67 3.90 0.75 Agricultural irrigation Numerous additional small projects (more than 650a) serving less than 2,000 persons are in various stages of planning and development. When completed, these treatment plants will serve 15–20% of the total population of Crete. 
2,000–5,000 15 4.65 0.90 Agricultural irrigation and landscape irrigation Two more plants are under implementation and three are under construction. 
5,000–15,000 10 8.90 2.25 Agricultural irrigation, landscape irrigation, and groundwater recharge. One more plant remains under implementation and another one is under construction. When those treatment plants (including the above) are completed, the total population served will rise above 80%. 
15,000–100,000 12.00 0.55 Agricultural irrigation, landscape irrigation, groundwater recharge, and indirect and direct potable reuse  
100,000–150,000 10.20  Agricultural irrigation and landscape irrigation  
>150,000 14.50 1.00 Agricultural irrigation, landscape irrigation, groundwater recharge, and indirect and direct potable reuse  
Total 99 54.15b 5.45c   

aWWTPs under implementation are not included.

bThe potential for agricultural use is about 10.1% of the total water used for agricultural irrigation.

cAbout 1.10% of the water is now reused for agricultural purposes.

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