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Table 1

Descriptive statistics comparing full sample, subsample of POU users (any reason), and subsample of lead-filtering POU users

CharacteristicFull sample (N = 2,867)
Any POU (N = 1,526)
POU lead (N = 650)
MeanSDNMeanSDNMeanSDN
POU adoption? 
 % Has POU 0.532 0.499 2,866       
 % POU filters lead (asked of % reporting POU) 0.426 0.495 1,526 0.426 0.495 1,526    
Exposure risk: lead plumbing 
 % No, LSL 0.338 0.473 2,867 0.335 0.472 1,526 0.303 0.460 650 
 % Yes, LSL 0.089 0.285 2,867 0.109 0.311 1,526 0.155 0.363 650 
 % DK, LSL 0.573 0.495 2,867 0.556 0.497 1,526 0.542 0.499 650 
 % No, internal lead plumb 0.426 0.495 2,864 0.432 0.496 1,525 0.418 0.494 649 
 % Yes, internal lead plumb 0.075 0.264 2,864 0.091 0.288 1,525 0.136 0.343 649 
 % DK, internal lead plumb 0.498 0.500 2,864 0.477 0.500 1,525 0.447 0.498 649 
Attitudes about lead in water 
 Level of concern about lead in water (1 = low; 5 = high) 2.254 1.241 2,867 2.362 1.258 1,526 2.746 1.298 650 
 Knowledge of health effects of lead (1 = low; 5 = high) 2.605 1.013 2,859 2.671 1.013 1,522 2.890 1.032 648 
Inequality marker: race/ethnicity 
 % NH White 0.804 0.397 2,863 0.794 0.404 1,523 0.754 0.431 650 
 % NH Black 0.077 0.266 2,863 0.073 0.260 1,523 0.094 0.292 650 
 % NH Asian 0.063 0.243 2,863 0.074 0.261 1,523 0.088 0.283 650 
 % NH Multi 0.039 0.193 2,863 0.039 0.193 1,523 0.043 0.203 650 
 % NH Other 0.018 0.132 2,863 0.020 0.141 1,523 0.022 0.145 650 
 % Hispanic 0.071 0.257 2,865 0.082 0.274 1,525 0.100 0.300 650 
Inequality marker: SES 
 % with college degree 0.520 0.500 2,862 0.563 0.496 1,522 0.558 0.497 650 
 % with HH income $50 K or greater 0.508 0.500 2,867 0.568 0.495 1,526 0.589 0.492 650 
Statistical controls 
 Age 38.783 12.255 2,863 38.188 12.118 1,524 37.637 12.113 650 
 % Female 0.540 0.498 2,860 0.550 0.498 1,521 0.512 0.500 650 
 % Partnered 0.555 0.497 2,865 0.594 0.491 1,524 0.606 0.489 650 
 % Living with child(ren) under 6 0.180 0.385 2,861 0.190 0.392 1,523 0.203 0.403 650 
 % Employed 0.776 0.417 2,865 0.801 0.400 1,525 0.828 0.378 650 
 % Own residence 0.548 0.498 2,867 0.592 0.492 1,526 0.591 0.492 650 
 % Urban 0.272 0.445 2,866 0.261 0.439 1,525 0.273 0.446 649 
 % Suburban 0.523 0.500 2,866 0.557 0.497 1,525 0.572 0.495 649 
 % Rural 0.204 0.403 2,866 0.182 0.386 1,525 0.156 0.363 649 
 % Religious progressive 0.146 0.353 2,867 0.147 0.355 1,526 0.158 0.365 650 
 % Religious non-traditional 0.071 0.257 2,867 0.069 0.254 1,526 0.066 0.249 650 
 % Secular 0.062 0.241 2,867 0.072 0.259 1,526 0.075 0.264 650 
 % Agnostic 0.181 0.385 2,867 0.173 0.378 1,526 0.152 0.360 650 
 % Atheist 0.159 0.365 2,867 0.149 0.357 1,526 0.135 0.342 650 
 % Spiritual 0.246 0.431 2,867 0.248 0.432 1,526 0.266 0.442 650 
 % None of the above religious categories 0.202 0.401 2,867 0.199 0.400 1,526 0.194 0.396 650 
 Extremely liberal (1) to conservative (7) 3.509 1.716 2,864 3.540 1.716 1,525 3.700 1.710 649 
 Strong democrat (1) to republican (7) 3.909 2.082 2,860 3.925 2.092 1,522 4.045 2.102 648 
 % Completed survey on weekday (versus weekend) 0.694 0.461 2,867 0.691 0.462 1,526 0.720 0.449 650 
 % Completed survey in morning 0.697 0.460 2,867 0.686 0.464 1,526 0.652 0.477 650 
 % Completed survey in afternoon 0.213 0.409 2,867 0.219 0.414 1,526 0.234 0.424 650 
 % Completed survey in evening 0.090 0.287 2,866 0.095 0.293 1,526 0.114 0.318 650 
CharacteristicFull sample (N = 2,867)
Any POU (N = 1,526)
POU lead (N = 650)
MeanSDNMeanSDNMeanSDN
POU adoption? 
 % Has POU 0.532 0.499 2,866       
 % POU filters lead (asked of % reporting POU) 0.426 0.495 1,526 0.426 0.495 1,526    
Exposure risk: lead plumbing 
 % No, LSL 0.338 0.473 2,867 0.335 0.472 1,526 0.303 0.460 650 
 % Yes, LSL 0.089 0.285 2,867 0.109 0.311 1,526 0.155 0.363 650 
 % DK, LSL 0.573 0.495 2,867 0.556 0.497 1,526 0.542 0.499 650 
 % No, internal lead plumb 0.426 0.495 2,864 0.432 0.496 1,525 0.418 0.494 649 
 % Yes, internal lead plumb 0.075 0.264 2,864 0.091 0.288 1,525 0.136 0.343 649 
 % DK, internal lead plumb 0.498 0.500 2,864 0.477 0.500 1,525 0.447 0.498 649 
Attitudes about lead in water 
 Level of concern about lead in water (1 = low; 5 = high) 2.254 1.241 2,867 2.362 1.258 1,526 2.746 1.298 650 
 Knowledge of health effects of lead (1 = low; 5 = high) 2.605 1.013 2,859 2.671 1.013 1,522 2.890 1.032 648 
Inequality marker: race/ethnicity 
 % NH White 0.804 0.397 2,863 0.794 0.404 1,523 0.754 0.431 650 
 % NH Black 0.077 0.266 2,863 0.073 0.260 1,523 0.094 0.292 650 
 % NH Asian 0.063 0.243 2,863 0.074 0.261 1,523 0.088 0.283 650 
 % NH Multi 0.039 0.193 2,863 0.039 0.193 1,523 0.043 0.203 650 
 % NH Other 0.018 0.132 2,863 0.020 0.141 1,523 0.022 0.145 650 
 % Hispanic 0.071 0.257 2,865 0.082 0.274 1,525 0.100 0.300 650 
Inequality marker: SES 
 % with college degree 0.520 0.500 2,862 0.563 0.496 1,522 0.558 0.497 650 
 % with HH income $50 K or greater 0.508 0.500 2,867 0.568 0.495 1,526 0.589 0.492 650 
Statistical controls 
 Age 38.783 12.255 2,863 38.188 12.118 1,524 37.637 12.113 650 
 % Female 0.540 0.498 2,860 0.550 0.498 1,521 0.512 0.500 650 
 % Partnered 0.555 0.497 2,865 0.594 0.491 1,524 0.606 0.489 650 
 % Living with child(ren) under 6 0.180 0.385 2,861 0.190 0.392 1,523 0.203 0.403 650 
 % Employed 0.776 0.417 2,865 0.801 0.400 1,525 0.828 0.378 650 
 % Own residence 0.548 0.498 2,867 0.592 0.492 1,526 0.591 0.492 650 
 % Urban 0.272 0.445 2,866 0.261 0.439 1,525 0.273 0.446 649 
 % Suburban 0.523 0.500 2,866 0.557 0.497 1,525 0.572 0.495 649 
 % Rural 0.204 0.403 2,866 0.182 0.386 1,525 0.156 0.363 649 
 % Religious progressive 0.146 0.353 2,867 0.147 0.355 1,526 0.158 0.365 650 
 % Religious non-traditional 0.071 0.257 2,867 0.069 0.254 1,526 0.066 0.249 650 
 % Secular 0.062 0.241 2,867 0.072 0.259 1,526 0.075 0.264 650 
 % Agnostic 0.181 0.385 2,867 0.173 0.378 1,526 0.152 0.360 650 
 % Atheist 0.159 0.365 2,867 0.149 0.357 1,526 0.135 0.342 650 
 % Spiritual 0.246 0.431 2,867 0.248 0.432 1,526 0.266 0.442 650 
 % None of the above religious categories 0.202 0.401 2,867 0.199 0.400 1,526 0.194 0.396 650 
 Extremely liberal (1) to conservative (7) 3.509 1.716 2,864 3.540 1.716 1,525 3.700 1.710 649 
 Strong democrat (1) to republican (7) 3.909 2.082 2,860 3.925 2.092 1,522 4.045 2.102 648 
 % Completed survey on weekday (versus weekend) 0.694 0.461 2,867 0.691 0.462 1,526 0.720 0.449 650 
 % Completed survey in morning 0.697 0.460 2,867 0.686 0.464 1,526 0.652 0.477 650 
 % Completed survey in afternoon 0.213 0.409 2,867 0.219 0.414 1,526 0.234 0.424 650 
 % Completed survey in evening 0.090 0.287 2,866 0.095 0.293 1,526 0.114 0.318 650 

Source: Perceptions of water quality, safety, and point-of-use filtration among Americans survey, March 2018.

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