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Table 2

Bivariate patterns among race/ethnicity, SES, presence of lead plumbing, and lead attitudes/knowledge among POU filter users

Inequality markersLead service line?
Internal lead plumbing/solder?
Level of concern
Level of knowledge
% No% Yes% DK% No% Yes% DKMeanSDMeanSD
Any POU use (N = 1,501) 
Race 
 NH Black 20.9 30.0 49.1a 32.7 29.1 38.2b 2.70 1.27d,e 2.98 1.10c 
 NH Asian 20.2 22.9 56.9 28.4 17.4 54.1 2.39 1.33 2.62 1.09 
 NH Multi 28.6 8.9 62.5 42.9 5.4 51.8 2.45 1.30 2.80 1.15 
 NH Other 45.2 19.4 35.5 41.9 12.9 45.2 2.97 1.28 3.03 1.11 
 NH White 35.6 7.8 56.7 45.4 6.4 48.2 2.21 1.17 2.63 0.98 
Ethnicity 
 NH (any race) 34.1 9.5 56.4a 44.1 7.8 48.0b 2.24 1.19a 2.66 1.01 
 Hispanic (any race) 24.4 25.2 50.4 30.9 22.0 47.2 2.78 1.32 2.83 1.08 
SES 
 No college degree 33.5 10.2 56.3 44.3 9.6 46.1 2.45 1.24a 2.59 0.99 
 College degree 33.2 11.3 55.6 42.1 8.5 49.4 2.15 1.16 2.74 1.03b 
 HH income less than $50 K 30.1 12.1 57.8b 36.7 10.7 52.6a 2.49 1.25a 2.65 1.04 
 HH income $50 K or greater 35.8 9.8 54.4 47.8 7.7 44.5 2.13 1.15 2.69 0.99 
Lead-filtering POU use (N = 643) 
Race 
 NH Black 21.7 43.3 35.0a 21.7 43.3 35.0a 3.13 1.30c 3.37 1.09c 
 NH Asian 29.8 22.8 47.4 29.8 22.8 47.4 2.71 1.43 2.84 1.03 
 NH Multi 48.0 8.0 44.0 48.0 8.0 44.0 2.76 1.18 3.00 1.29 
 NH Other 57.1 14.3 28.6 57.1 14.3 28.6 3.18 1.30 3.14 1.10 
 NH White 45.0 9.0 46.0 45.0 9.0 46.0 2.56 1.21 2.83 1.00 
Ethnicity 
 NH (any race) 31.4 13.6 54.9a 43.2 11.2 45.6a 2.58 1.23a 2.88 1.03 
 Hispanic (any race) 20.3 32.8 46.9 29.7 34.4 35.9 3.22 1.28 3.02 1.08 
SES 
 No college degree 31.2 13.7 55.1 44.2 11.9 43.9 2.75 1.25 2.76 1.00b 
 College degree 29.6 17.0 53.4 39.9 14.8 45.3 2.56 1.25 2.99 1.05 
 HH income less than $50 K 24.7 17.1 58.2b 34.2 15.6 50.2b 2.84 1.25a 2.86 1.03 
 HH income $50 K or greater 34.2 14.5 51.3 47.1 12.1 40.8 2.51 1.24 2.92 1.04 
Inequality markersLead service line?
Internal lead plumbing/solder?
Level of concern
Level of knowledge
% No% Yes% DK% No% Yes% DKMeanSDMeanSD
Any POU use (N = 1,501) 
Race 
 NH Black 20.9 30.0 49.1a 32.7 29.1 38.2b 2.70 1.27d,e 2.98 1.10c 
 NH Asian 20.2 22.9 56.9 28.4 17.4 54.1 2.39 1.33 2.62 1.09 
 NH Multi 28.6 8.9 62.5 42.9 5.4 51.8 2.45 1.30 2.80 1.15 
 NH Other 45.2 19.4 35.5 41.9 12.9 45.2 2.97 1.28 3.03 1.11 
 NH White 35.6 7.8 56.7 45.4 6.4 48.2 2.21 1.17 2.63 0.98 
Ethnicity 
 NH (any race) 34.1 9.5 56.4a 44.1 7.8 48.0b 2.24 1.19a 2.66 1.01 
 Hispanic (any race) 24.4 25.2 50.4 30.9 22.0 47.2 2.78 1.32 2.83 1.08 
SES 
 No college degree 33.5 10.2 56.3 44.3 9.6 46.1 2.45 1.24a 2.59 0.99 
 College degree 33.2 11.3 55.6 42.1 8.5 49.4 2.15 1.16 2.74 1.03b 
 HH income less than $50 K 30.1 12.1 57.8b 36.7 10.7 52.6a 2.49 1.25a 2.65 1.04 
 HH income $50 K or greater 35.8 9.8 54.4 47.8 7.7 44.5 2.13 1.15 2.69 0.99 
Lead-filtering POU use (N = 643) 
Race 
 NH Black 21.7 43.3 35.0a 21.7 43.3 35.0a 3.13 1.30c 3.37 1.09c 
 NH Asian 29.8 22.8 47.4 29.8 22.8 47.4 2.71 1.43 2.84 1.03 
 NH Multi 48.0 8.0 44.0 48.0 8.0 44.0 2.76 1.18 3.00 1.29 
 NH Other 57.1 14.3 28.6 57.1 14.3 28.6 3.18 1.30 3.14 1.10 
 NH White 45.0 9.0 46.0 45.0 9.0 46.0 2.56 1.21 2.83 1.00 
Ethnicity 
 NH (any race) 31.4 13.6 54.9a 43.2 11.2 45.6a 2.58 1.23a 2.88 1.03 
 Hispanic (any race) 20.3 32.8 46.9 29.7 34.4 35.9 3.22 1.28 3.02 1.08 
SES 
 No college degree 31.2 13.7 55.1 44.2 11.9 43.9 2.75 1.25 2.76 1.00b 
 College degree 29.6 17.0 53.4 39.9 14.8 45.3 2.56 1.25 2.99 1.05 
 HH income less than $50 K 24.7 17.1 58.2b 34.2 15.6 50.2b 2.84 1.25a 2.86 1.03 
 HH income $50 K or greater 34.2 14.5 51.3 47.1 12.1 40.8 2.51 1.24 2.92 1.04 

Source: Perceptions of water quality, safety, and point-of-use filtration among Americans survey, March 2018.

aChi-square/F-tests have p < 0.001.

bChi-square/F-tests have p < 0.05.

cWhite–Black differences are significant, p < 0.05.

dWhite–Black differences are significant, p < 0.01.

eWhite–Other differences are significant, p < 0.05.

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