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Table 3

Logistic regression results documenting the influence of race/ethnicity, SES, lead plumbing, and attitudes on likelihood of lead-filtering POU adoption, N = 1,501

CharacteristicModel 1
Model 2
Model 3
Model 4
ORSEProbORSEProbORSEProbORSEProb
Interaction terms 
HH income*level of concern       1.247 0.122 0.024 1.250 0.122 0.023 
Exposure to lead plumbing (comparison is no) 
 Yes, LSL    1.776 0.404 0.012    1.232 0.296 0.386 
 DK, LSL    1.281 0.189 0.093    1.173 0.182 0.305 
 Yes, internal lead plumbing    1.586 0.379 0.053    1.037 0.262 0.884 
 DK, internal lead plumbing    0.844 0.120 0.232    0.823 0.124 0.195 
Attitudes/knowledge 
 Level of concern about lead in water       1.375 0.097 0.000 1.359 0.100 0.000 
 Knowledge of health effects of lead       1.340 0.079 0.000 1.322 0.082 0.000 
Race/ethnicity (NH White is comparison) 
 NH Black 1.716 0.361 0.010 1.432 0.312 0.099 1.367 0.306 0.161 1.313 0.298 0.231 
 NH Asian 1.690 0.355 0.013 1.496 0.321 0.060 1.583 0.352 0.039 1.546 0.346 0.052 
 NH Multi 1.102 0.317 0.737 1.127 0.326 0.679 0.970 0.297 0.922 0.975 0.299 0.934 
 NH Other 1.005 0.391 0.989 1.008 0.395 0.984 0.694 0.281 0.367 0.711 0.287 0.398 
 % Hispanic (versus NH) 1.443 0.299 0.076 1.283 0.272 0.240 1.271 0.280 0.276 1.241 0.276 0.331 
Inequality marker: SES 
 College degree 0.885 0.101 0.285 0.901 0.104 0.366 0.935 0.113 0.581 0.947 0.115 0.655 
 HH income $50 K or greater 1.098 0.136 0.446 1.130 0.141 0.328 1.280 0.167 0.059 1.278 0.168 0.061 
Statistical controls 
 Age 0.996 0.005 0.467 0.997 0.005 0.565 0.997 0.005 0.549 0.997 0.005 0.542 
 Female 0.788 0.088 0.033 0.793 0.090 0.041 0.747 0.088 0.013 0.756 0.090 0.018 
 Partnered 1.139 0.141 0.291 1.146 0.143 0.275 1.128 0.145 0.351 1.122 0.146 0.376 
 Living with child(ren) under 6 1.060 0.155 0.690 1.028 0.152 0.850 0.989 0.151 0.940 0.985 0.151 0.923 
 Employed 1.253 0.176 0.108 1.189 0.169 0.223 1.052 0.155 0.730 1.040 0.153 0.789 
 Own residence 1.033 0.126 0.789 1.014 0.126 0.909 1.034 0.133 0.794 1.019 0.132 0.885 
 Urban (versus rural) 1.315 0.232 0.121 1.201 0.216 0.309 1.278 0.236 0.185 1.261 0.236 0.217 
 Suburban (versus rural) 1.273 0.191 0.107 1.228 0.186 0.175 1.282 0.201 0.113 1.274 0.201 0.124 
 Religious progressive 0.843 0.199 0.469 0.825 0.196 0.419 0.785 0.194 0.327 0.777 0.193 0.309 
 Religious non-traditional 0.731 0.202 0.258 0.753 0.210 0.310 0.731 0.212 0.279 0.737 0.215 0.295 
 Secular 0.872 0.221 0.590 0.890 0.228 0.648 0.874 0.233 0.614 0.870 0.233 0.602 
 Agnostic 0.617 0.149 0.046 0.653 0.160 0.081 0.630 0.161 0.070 0.637 0.164 0.079 
 Atheist 0.721 0.182 0.196 0.758 0.193 0.277 0.760 0.202 0.303 0.771 0.206 0.329 
 Spiritual 0.864 0.203 0.533 0.866 0.206 0.544 0.818 0.203 0.417 0.815 0.203 0.412 
 None of the above religious categories 0.641 0.164 0.083 0.657 0.170 0.105 0.686 0.185 0.163 0.687 0.186 0.166 
 Extremely liberal (1) to conservative (7) 1.091 0.045 0.034 1.074 0.045 0.086 1.087 0.047 0.056 1.083 0.047 0.069 
 Strong democrat (1) to republican (7) 1.014 0.032 0.663 1.021 0.033 0.520 1.005 0.033 0.891 1.009 0.034 0.797 
 Completed survey on weekday (versus weekend) 1.137 0.149 0.328 1.137 0.150 0.332 1.153 0.158 0.299 1.153 0.158 0.300 
 Completed survey in afternoon (versus morning) 1.133 0.162 0.385 1.179 0.170 0.256 1.166 0.174 0.303 1.178 0.177 0.275 
 Completed survey in evening (versus morning) 1.395 0.269 0.084 1.405 0.273 0.080 1.491 0.301 0.048 1.482 0.299 0.051 
 Constant 0.552 0.175 0.061 0.505 0.165 0.036 0.612 0.203 0.139 0.611 0.208 0.149 
CharacteristicModel 1
Model 2
Model 3
Model 4
ORSEProbORSEProbORSEProbORSEProb
Interaction terms 
HH income*level of concern       1.247 0.122 0.024 1.250 0.122 0.023 
Exposure to lead plumbing (comparison is no) 
 Yes, LSL    1.776 0.404 0.012    1.232 0.296 0.386 
 DK, LSL    1.281 0.189 0.093    1.173 0.182 0.305 
 Yes, internal lead plumbing    1.586 0.379 0.053    1.037 0.262 0.884 
 DK, internal lead plumbing    0.844 0.120 0.232    0.823 0.124 0.195 
Attitudes/knowledge 
 Level of concern about lead in water       1.375 0.097 0.000 1.359 0.100 0.000 
 Knowledge of health effects of lead       1.340 0.079 0.000 1.322 0.082 0.000 
Race/ethnicity (NH White is comparison) 
 NH Black 1.716 0.361 0.010 1.432 0.312 0.099 1.367 0.306 0.161 1.313 0.298 0.231 
 NH Asian 1.690 0.355 0.013 1.496 0.321 0.060 1.583 0.352 0.039 1.546 0.346 0.052 
 NH Multi 1.102 0.317 0.737 1.127 0.326 0.679 0.970 0.297 0.922 0.975 0.299 0.934 
 NH Other 1.005 0.391 0.989 1.008 0.395 0.984 0.694 0.281 0.367 0.711 0.287 0.398 
 % Hispanic (versus NH) 1.443 0.299 0.076 1.283 0.272 0.240 1.271 0.280 0.276 1.241 0.276 0.331 
Inequality marker: SES 
 College degree 0.885 0.101 0.285 0.901 0.104 0.366 0.935 0.113 0.581 0.947 0.115 0.655 
 HH income $50 K or greater 1.098 0.136 0.446 1.130 0.141 0.328 1.280 0.167 0.059 1.278 0.168 0.061 
Statistical controls 
 Age 0.996 0.005 0.467 0.997 0.005 0.565 0.997 0.005 0.549 0.997 0.005 0.542 
 Female 0.788 0.088 0.033 0.793 0.090 0.041 0.747 0.088 0.013 0.756 0.090 0.018 
 Partnered 1.139 0.141 0.291 1.146 0.143 0.275 1.128 0.145 0.351 1.122 0.146 0.376 
 Living with child(ren) under 6 1.060 0.155 0.690 1.028 0.152 0.850 0.989 0.151 0.940 0.985 0.151 0.923 
 Employed 1.253 0.176 0.108 1.189 0.169 0.223 1.052 0.155 0.730 1.040 0.153 0.789 
 Own residence 1.033 0.126 0.789 1.014 0.126 0.909 1.034 0.133 0.794 1.019 0.132 0.885 
 Urban (versus rural) 1.315 0.232 0.121 1.201 0.216 0.309 1.278 0.236 0.185 1.261 0.236 0.217 
 Suburban (versus rural) 1.273 0.191 0.107 1.228 0.186 0.175 1.282 0.201 0.113 1.274 0.201 0.124 
 Religious progressive 0.843 0.199 0.469 0.825 0.196 0.419 0.785 0.194 0.327 0.777 0.193 0.309 
 Religious non-traditional 0.731 0.202 0.258 0.753 0.210 0.310 0.731 0.212 0.279 0.737 0.215 0.295 
 Secular 0.872 0.221 0.590 0.890 0.228 0.648 0.874 0.233 0.614 0.870 0.233 0.602 
 Agnostic 0.617 0.149 0.046 0.653 0.160 0.081 0.630 0.161 0.070 0.637 0.164 0.079 
 Atheist 0.721 0.182 0.196 0.758 0.193 0.277 0.760 0.202 0.303 0.771 0.206 0.329 
 Spiritual 0.864 0.203 0.533 0.866 0.206 0.544 0.818 0.203 0.417 0.815 0.203 0.412 
 None of the above religious categories 0.641 0.164 0.083 0.657 0.170 0.105 0.686 0.185 0.163 0.687 0.186 0.166 
 Extremely liberal (1) to conservative (7) 1.091 0.045 0.034 1.074 0.045 0.086 1.087 0.047 0.056 1.083 0.047 0.069 
 Strong democrat (1) to republican (7) 1.014 0.032 0.663 1.021 0.033 0.520 1.005 0.033 0.891 1.009 0.034 0.797 
 Completed survey on weekday (versus weekend) 1.137 0.149 0.328 1.137 0.150 0.332 1.153 0.158 0.299 1.153 0.158 0.300 
 Completed survey in afternoon (versus morning) 1.133 0.162 0.385 1.179 0.170 0.256 1.166 0.174 0.303 1.178 0.177 0.275 
 Completed survey in evening (versus morning) 1.395 0.269 0.084 1.405 0.273 0.080 1.491 0.301 0.048 1.482 0.299 0.051 
 Constant 0.552 0.175 0.061 0.505 0.165 0.036 0.612 0.203 0.139 0.611 0.208 0.149 

Source: Perceptions of water quality, safety, and point-of-use filtration among Americans survey, March 2018.

Bolded figures are significant at p < 0.05.

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