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Two distributed hydrological models were used for simulating the water balance components: the flash-flood event-based spatially distributed rainfall–runoff transformation, including water balance (FEST-WB) (Rabuffetti et al. (2008)) and the flash-flood event-based spatially distributed rainfall–runoff transformation, including energy and water balance (FEST-EWB) (Corbari et al. (2011)). The primary difference between them is in the computation of ET. The FEST-WB model derives the actual ET by rescaling the potential ET using a simple empirical approximation, where the potential ET is computed based only on air temperature measurements (Ravazzani et al. 2012, 2014a). In contrast, the FEST-EWB model computes the actual ET by solving the system of water mass and energy balance equations (Ravazzani et al. 2014a). The differences in the input parameters and meteorological forcings are listed in Table 2.

Table 2

Meteorological forcings and parameters used as input to the FEST-WB and FEST-EWB models

InputUnitFEST-WBFEST-EWB
Precipitation mm 
Temperature °C 
Solar radiation W/m2  
Wind speed m/s  
Relative humidity  
Saturated hydraulic conductivity m/s 
Residual moisture content – 
Saturated moisture content – 
Wilting point – 
Field capacity – 
Pore size index – 
Curve number – 
Soil depth 
Vegetation fraction 
Crop coefficient –  
LAI m2/m2  
Albedo –  
Minimum stomatal resistance s/m  
Vegetation height  
InputUnitFEST-WBFEST-EWB
Precipitation mm 
Temperature °C 
Solar radiation W/m2  
Wind speed m/s  
Relative humidity  
Saturated hydraulic conductivity m/s 
Residual moisture content – 
Saturated moisture content – 
Wilting point – 
Field capacity – 
Pore size index – 
Curve number – 
Soil depth 
Vegetation fraction 
Crop coefficient –  
LAI m2/m2  
Albedo –  
Minimum stomatal resistance s/m  
Vegetation height  

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