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As shown in Tables 4 and 5, a better correlation (R2) was found using the energy-balance model in both the two sites, Livraga and Secugnago, respectively; however, the MAE for SM shows fairly good results using both the Hargreaves and energy-balance equations during the entire forecast horizon, also due to a good performance of weather forecasts previously described; acceptable values, in fact, were found between 0.01 and 0.03 from day +0 to day +8, respectively.

Table 4

Performance for SM forecasts over the Livraga maize field using Hargreaves equation (a) and the energy balance (b)

Livragad+0d+1d+2d+3d+4d+5d+6d+7d+8
(a) 
 SM – Hargreaves 
  R2 [−] 0.88 0.80 0.81 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.68 0.63 0.54 
  MAE 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 
  MRE [%] 2.89% 3.99% 4.11% 4.61% 5.49% 5.81% 6.30% 7.59% 9.23% 
(b) 
 SM – EWB 
  R2 [−] 0.94 0.88 0.88 0.86 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.71 0.63 
  MAE 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 
  MRE [%] 0.32% 0.38% 0.19% 0.08% 0.04% −0.10% −0.22% −0.21% −0.11% 
Livragad+0d+1d+2d+3d+4d+5d+6d+7d+8
(a) 
 SM – Hargreaves 
  R2 [−] 0.88 0.80 0.81 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.68 0.63 0.54 
  MAE 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 
  MRE [%] 2.89% 3.99% 4.11% 4.61% 5.49% 5.81% 6.30% 7.59% 9.23% 
(b) 
 SM – EWB 
  R2 [−] 0.94 0.88 0.88 0.86 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.71 0.63 
  MAE 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 
  MRE [%] 0.32% 0.38% 0.19% 0.08% 0.04% −0.10% −0.22% −0.21% −0.11% 
Table 5

Performance for SM forecast over the Secugnago maize field using Hargreaves equation (a) and the energy balance (b)

Secugnagod+0d+1d+2d+3d+4d+5d+6d+7d+8
(a) 
 SM – Hargreaves 
  R2 [−] 0.80 0.70 0.71 0.68 0.62 0.56 0.51 0.45 0.36 
  MAE 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 
  MRE [%] 0.83% 1.18% 1.27% 1.49% 1.67% 1.75% 2.04% 2.41% 2.90% 
(b) 
 SM – EWB 
  R2 [−] 0.92 0.85 0.86 0.84 0.78 0.74 0.69 0.62 0.50 
  MAE 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 
  MRE [%] 0.69% 0.18% −0.88% −1.65% −2.28% −3.17% −3.62% −3.79% −3.58% 
Secugnagod+0d+1d+2d+3d+4d+5d+6d+7d+8
(a) 
 SM – Hargreaves 
  R2 [−] 0.80 0.70 0.71 0.68 0.62 0.56 0.51 0.45 0.36 
  MAE 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 
  MRE [%] 0.83% 1.18% 1.27% 1.49% 1.67% 1.75% 2.04% 2.41% 2.90% 
(b) 
 SM – EWB 
  R2 [−] 0.92 0.85 0.86 0.84 0.78 0.74 0.69 0.62 0.50 
  MAE 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 
  MRE [%] 0.69% 0.18% −0.88% −1.65% −2.28% −3.17% −3.62% −3.79% −3.58% 

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