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Table 1

WSSI scoring criteria (adapted after Carter (2006))

Sustainability factorsComponentsDescriptionScores obtainableScores obtained
Access Far distance to water source Distance (exceeding 1,000 m) limits consumption to less than 8 litres per capita per day  
Closer proximity Water source is close, say between 500 and 1,000 m  
Water source is easily accessible Water source is within the compound or linked to the house through pipe networks or water source is located outside the compound less 500 m away  
Quality Water source is polluted Objectionable taste or odour, close to toilets or septic tanks, among other sources of pollution  
Source is protected close to possible sources of contamination and untreated Source is covered but close to source of contamination  
Source is protected and treated Source is covered, water is treated and treatment is high standard  
Reliability Variability in quantity with respect to yield or season Water source is affected by season or can dry up when used heavily or yield is low, or source is unavailable and so results in conflicts (quarrels)  
Low quantity consumption, largely, due to access Though consumption is low due to access, but water needs of users can still be met  
Water source is available on demand Supply is more than 20 litres per capita per day  
Cost High cost i. Sources requires high human cost of time/money/energy/health  
Consumers contribute 10–15% of construction cost 
  • i.

    Fees cover maintenance cost only or

  • ii.

    Consumers contribute to construction cost or maintenance (NGO constructed boreholes)

 
 
Low consumer costs (time/energy/health) Construction cost is borne by consumers, maintenance/operation fees are minimal (e.g. self-supply system)  
Management Consumer contribution to management is ONLY financial 
  • i.

    Operation/maintenance is borne by government/NGO

  • ii.

    Operation/maintenance is borne by an individual owner

 
 
Consumer contribution is beyond financial, additional support required for the system to function Continuous support is required to enable consumer management procedure to function  
Management is solely done by the water supply system owner (self-supply system) Water source is constructed/managed and maintained by consumers only  
Maximum score obtainable ()  10  
Score obtained () 
Percentage score (WSSI)  
Sustainability factorsComponentsDescriptionScores obtainableScores obtained
Access Far distance to water source Distance (exceeding 1,000 m) limits consumption to less than 8 litres per capita per day  
Closer proximity Water source is close, say between 500 and 1,000 m  
Water source is easily accessible Water source is within the compound or linked to the house through pipe networks or water source is located outside the compound less 500 m away  
Quality Water source is polluted Objectionable taste or odour, close to toilets or septic tanks, among other sources of pollution  
Source is protected close to possible sources of contamination and untreated Source is covered but close to source of contamination  
Source is protected and treated Source is covered, water is treated and treatment is high standard  
Reliability Variability in quantity with respect to yield or season Water source is affected by season or can dry up when used heavily or yield is low, or source is unavailable and so results in conflicts (quarrels)  
Low quantity consumption, largely, due to access Though consumption is low due to access, but water needs of users can still be met  
Water source is available on demand Supply is more than 20 litres per capita per day  
Cost High cost i. Sources requires high human cost of time/money/energy/health  
Consumers contribute 10–15% of construction cost 
  • i.

    Fees cover maintenance cost only or

  • ii.

    Consumers contribute to construction cost or maintenance (NGO constructed boreholes)

 
 
Low consumer costs (time/energy/health) Construction cost is borne by consumers, maintenance/operation fees are minimal (e.g. self-supply system)  
Management Consumer contribution to management is ONLY financial 
  • i.

    Operation/maintenance is borne by government/NGO

  • ii.

    Operation/maintenance is borne by an individual owner

 
 
Consumer contribution is beyond financial, additional support required for the system to function Continuous support is required to enable consumer management procedure to function  
Management is solely done by the water supply system owner (self-supply system) Water source is constructed/managed and maintained by consumers only  
Maximum score obtainable ()  10  
Score obtained () 
Percentage score (WSSI)  
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