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Table 2

BCWF removal assay with natural waters testing microbial and physicochemical removal in filtered waters considering drinking water guidelines (WHO 2011b)

ParameterRaw waterEffluent (n = 3)SDReduction (%) levelLimits drinking water guidelines
E. coli (cfu/100 mL) 3,450.0   100.0*** 
Color 46.0  6.83 0.67  85.14** 15 
Turbidity 44.00  0.67 0.58  98.48*** 
Nitrite (mg/L) 0.60  0.41 0.06  32.09* 
Nitrate (mg/L) 2.88  2.19 0.19  23.96* 50 
BOD 6.00 0.00 0.00 100.00*** NHC 
COD 21.00 18.25 0.68 13.07* NHC 
Ammonia (mg/L) 0.23 0.17 0.06 23.43* NHC 
Phosphate (mg/L) 0.77 0.12 0.01 84.59** NHC 
Chloride (mg/L) 18.71 12.97 0.75 30.70* NHC 
Sulfate (mg/L) 29.57 21.98 1.73 25.66* NHC 
Oil (mg/L) 0.01 0.01 0.00 46.15* NHC 
Alkalinity (mg/L) 121.65 102.93 16.21 15.38* NHC 
ParameterRaw waterEffluent (n = 3)SDReduction (%) levelLimits drinking water guidelines
E. coli (cfu/100 mL) 3,450.0   100.0*** 
Color 46.0  6.83 0.67  85.14** 15 
Turbidity 44.00  0.67 0.58  98.48*** 
Nitrite (mg/L) 0.60  0.41 0.06  32.09* 
Nitrate (mg/L) 2.88  2.19 0.19  23.96* 50 
BOD 6.00 0.00 0.00 100.00*** NHC 
COD 21.00 18.25 0.68 13.07* NHC 
Ammonia (mg/L) 0.23 0.17 0.06 23.43* NHC 
Phosphate (mg/L) 0.77 0.12 0.01 84.59** NHC 
Chloride (mg/L) 18.71 12.97 0.75 30.70* NHC 
Sulfate (mg/L) 29.57 21.98 1.73 25.66* NHC 
Oil (mg/L) 0.01 0.01 0.00 46.15* NHC 
Alkalinity (mg/L) 121.65 102.93 16.21 15.38* NHC 

Reduction levels: *10–50%; **50–90%; ***>90%; NHC: non-health concern. Bold numbers highlight significant reduction levels.

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