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Table 3

Microbiological quality of drinking water in the Santa Marianita community

Group (Control ‘A’/Experimental ‘B’)HWTS usedUse reportedE. coli tap water cfu/100 mL Mean value (min–max) n = 9E. coli drinking water cfu/100 mL Mean value (min–max) n = 9
A No treatment ——— 57 (4–127)*** 57 (4–127)*** 
No treatment ——— 20 (3–32)*** 20 (3–32)*** 
No treatment ——— 52 (4–94)*** 52 (4–94)*** 
No treatment ——— 72 (29–184)*** 72 (29–184)*** 
No treatment ——— 60 (18–200)*** 60 (18–200)*** 
No treatment ——— 113 (52–214)**** 113 (52–214)**** 
No treatment ——— 29 (3–100)*** 29 (3–100)*** 
No treatment ——— 60 (24–127)*** 60 (24–127)*** 
No treatment ——— 84 (12–300)*** 84 (12–300)*** 
Boiling Always 74 (13–293)*** 0 (0–2)*** 
Boiling Always 80 (13–254)*** 32 (0–104)*** 
Boiling Always 55 (43–67)*** 1 (0–3)** 
Boiling Frequent 54 (26–90)*** 20 (0–77)*** 
Boiling Frequent 45 (14–73)*** 25 (0–73)*** 
Boiling Always 80 (13–254)*** 16 (2–58)*** 
Boiling Rare 94 (13–327)*** 86 (0–246)*** 
Boiling Always 80 (17–277)*** 15 (0–41)*** 
Bottled water Always ——— 3 (0–11)** 
BCWF Always 45 (20–82)*** 2 (0–7)** 
BCWF Always 29 (12–48)*** 4 (0–24)** 
BCWF Always 129 (15–450)**** 1 (0–1)** 
BCWF Always 112 (21–228)**** 8 (0–25)** 
BCWF Always 87 (14–216)*** 6 (0–34)** 
BCWF Always 109 (16–213)**** 0 (0–0)* 
BCWF Always 55 (2–209)*** 7 (0–5)** 
BCWF Always 216 (23–648)**** 15 (0–61)*** 
BCWF Always 110 (35–290)**** 7 (0–41)** 
BCWF Always 98 (42–280)*** 6 (0–23)** 
BCWF Always 138 (74–228)**** 28 (0–91)*** 
BCWF Always 107 (9–379)**** 9 (0–26)** 
BCWF Always 122 (41–309)**** 24 (0–115)*** 
BCWF Always 49 (27–95)*** 0 (0–1)* 
BCWF Always 54 (1–284)*** 0 (0–1)* 
BCWF Always 48 (13–101)*** 2 (0–12)** 
BCWF Always 50 (16–158)*** 0 (0–0)* 
BCWF Always 35 (8–116)*** 7 (0–25)** 
Group (Control ‘A’/Experimental ‘B’)HWTS usedUse reportedE. coli tap water cfu/100 mL Mean value (min–max) n = 9E. coli drinking water cfu/100 mL Mean value (min–max) n = 9
A No treatment ——— 57 (4–127)*** 57 (4–127)*** 
No treatment ——— 20 (3–32)*** 20 (3–32)*** 
No treatment ——— 52 (4–94)*** 52 (4–94)*** 
No treatment ——— 72 (29–184)*** 72 (29–184)*** 
No treatment ——— 60 (18–200)*** 60 (18–200)*** 
No treatment ——— 113 (52–214)**** 113 (52–214)**** 
No treatment ——— 29 (3–100)*** 29 (3–100)*** 
No treatment ——— 60 (24–127)*** 60 (24–127)*** 
No treatment ——— 84 (12–300)*** 84 (12–300)*** 
Boiling Always 74 (13–293)*** 0 (0–2)*** 
Boiling Always 80 (13–254)*** 32 (0–104)*** 
Boiling Always 55 (43–67)*** 1 (0–3)** 
Boiling Frequent 54 (26–90)*** 20 (0–77)*** 
Boiling Frequent 45 (14–73)*** 25 (0–73)*** 
Boiling Always 80 (13–254)*** 16 (2–58)*** 
Boiling Rare 94 (13–327)*** 86 (0–246)*** 
Boiling Always 80 (17–277)*** 15 (0–41)*** 
Bottled water Always ——— 3 (0–11)** 
BCWF Always 45 (20–82)*** 2 (0–7)** 
BCWF Always 29 (12–48)*** 4 (0–24)** 
BCWF Always 129 (15–450)**** 1 (0–1)** 
BCWF Always 112 (21–228)**** 8 (0–25)** 
BCWF Always 87 (14–216)*** 6 (0–34)** 
BCWF Always 109 (16–213)**** 0 (0–0)* 
BCWF Always 55 (2–209)*** 7 (0–5)** 
BCWF Always 216 (23–648)**** 15 (0–61)*** 
BCWF Always 110 (35–290)**** 7 (0–41)** 
BCWF Always 98 (42–280)*** 6 (0–23)** 
BCWF Always 138 (74–228)**** 28 (0–91)*** 
BCWF Always 107 (9–379)**** 9 (0–26)** 
BCWF Always 122 (41–309)**** 24 (0–115)*** 
BCWF Always 49 (27–95)*** 0 (0–1)* 
BCWF Always 54 (1–284)*** 0 (0–1)* 
BCWF Always 48 (13–101)*** 2 (0–12)** 
BCWF Always 50 (16–158)*** 0 (0–0)* 
BCWF Always 35 (8–116)*** 7 (0–25)** 

Water quality is represented in categories considering the E. coli concentration (cfu/100 mL) and safety level: 0, safe (*); 0–10, low risk (**); 10–100, moderate risk (***); 100–1,000, high risk (****).

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