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Table 1

WASH knowledge and practices and gender differences

CharacteristicslevelMale (n = 246) n (%)Female (n = 104) n (%)Total (N = 350) n (%)Chi-square value χ2 (df)p-Value
WASH knowledge 
Knowledge Poor 100 (40.6) 38 (36.5) 138 (39.42) 2.80 (2) 0.246 
Average 103 (41.9) 53 (51) 156 (44.58) 
Good 43 (17.5) 13 (12.5) 56 (16) 
WASH practices 
Source of drinking water Tube well 214 (87) 80 (76.9) 294 (84) 9.45 (3) 0.024* 
Piped water 21 (8.5) 10 (9.6) 31 (8.86) 
Dug well 7 (2.8) 10 (9.6) 17 (4.86) 
Small tank 4 (1.6) 4 (3.8) 8 (2.28) 
Use of cover on water container during transportation and storage Regular 142 (57.7) 55 (52.9) 197 (56.28) 5.95 (2) 0.051 
Irregular 10 (4.1) 0 (0) 10 (2.86) 
No use 94 (38.2) 49 (47.1) 143 (40.86) 
Key times of hand-washinga After defecation 227 (92.3) 95 (91.3) 322 (92) 0.09 (1) 0.769 
Before eating 229 (93.1) 100 (96.2) 329 (94) 1.22 (1) 0.270 
Before preparing food 149 (60.6) 75 (72.1) 224 (64) 4.23 (1) 0.040* 
Before feeding child 133 (54.1) 89 (85.6) 222 (63.42) 31.29 (1) <0.001* 
After toughing dirty objects 212 (86.2) 85 (81.7) 297 (84.85) 1.13 (1) 0.289 
Kinds of defecation practice Communal toilet 129 (52.4) 56 (53.8) 185 (52.86) 3.43 (3) 0.330 
Shared household toilet 103 (41.9) 37 (35.5) 140 (40) 
Single household toilet 9 (3.7) 8 (7.7) 17 (4.86) 
Outside 5 (2) 3 (2.9) 8 (2.28) 
Use of footwear before using toilet Regular 184 (74.8) 76 (73.1) 260 (74.28) 1.76 (2) 0.415 
Irregular 24 (9.8) 7 (6.7) 31 (8.86) 
No use 38 (15.4) 21 (20.2) 59 (16.86) 
Brushing of teeth Regular 180 (73.2) 74 (71.2) 254 (72.57) 0.149 (1) 0.699 
Irregular 66 (26.8) 30 (28.8) 96 (27.43) 
Agent used for brushing teeth Tooth paste 35 (14.2) 13 (12.5) 48 (13.71) 24.59 (4) <0.001* 
Tooth powder 63 (25.6) 12 (11.5) 75 (21.43) 
Stick 62 (25.2) 14 (13.5) 76 (21.72) 
Ash 61 (24.8) 48 (46.2) 109 (31.14) 
Salt 25 (10.2) 17 (16.3) 42 (12) 
Bathing practice Regular 52 (21.1) 4 (3.8) 56 (16) 16.26 (1) <0.001* 
Irregular 194 (78.9) 100 (96.2) 294 (84) 
Agent used for bathing Water only 77 (31.3) 15 (14.4) 92 (26.28) 12.54 (2) 0.002* 
Soap 38 (15.4) 14 (13.5) 52 (14.86) 
Irregular use of soap 131 (53.3) 75 (72.1) 206 (58.86) 
Washing of clothes Regular 167 (67.9) 75 (72.1) 242 (69.14) 0.61 (1) 0.434 
Irregular 79 (32.1) 29 (27.9) 108 (30.86) 
CharacteristicslevelMale (n = 246) n (%)Female (n = 104) n (%)Total (N = 350) n (%)Chi-square value χ2 (df)p-Value
WASH knowledge 
Knowledge Poor 100 (40.6) 38 (36.5) 138 (39.42) 2.80 (2) 0.246 
Average 103 (41.9) 53 (51) 156 (44.58) 
Good 43 (17.5) 13 (12.5) 56 (16) 
WASH practices 
Source of drinking water Tube well 214 (87) 80 (76.9) 294 (84) 9.45 (3) 0.024* 
Piped water 21 (8.5) 10 (9.6) 31 (8.86) 
Dug well 7 (2.8) 10 (9.6) 17 (4.86) 
Small tank 4 (1.6) 4 (3.8) 8 (2.28) 
Use of cover on water container during transportation and storage Regular 142 (57.7) 55 (52.9) 197 (56.28) 5.95 (2) 0.051 
Irregular 10 (4.1) 0 (0) 10 (2.86) 
No use 94 (38.2) 49 (47.1) 143 (40.86) 
Key times of hand-washinga After defecation 227 (92.3) 95 (91.3) 322 (92) 0.09 (1) 0.769 
Before eating 229 (93.1) 100 (96.2) 329 (94) 1.22 (1) 0.270 
Before preparing food 149 (60.6) 75 (72.1) 224 (64) 4.23 (1) 0.040* 
Before feeding child 133 (54.1) 89 (85.6) 222 (63.42) 31.29 (1) <0.001* 
After toughing dirty objects 212 (86.2) 85 (81.7) 297 (84.85) 1.13 (1) 0.289 
Kinds of defecation practice Communal toilet 129 (52.4) 56 (53.8) 185 (52.86) 3.43 (3) 0.330 
Shared household toilet 103 (41.9) 37 (35.5) 140 (40) 
Single household toilet 9 (3.7) 8 (7.7) 17 (4.86) 
Outside 5 (2) 3 (2.9) 8 (2.28) 
Use of footwear before using toilet Regular 184 (74.8) 76 (73.1) 260 (74.28) 1.76 (2) 0.415 
Irregular 24 (9.8) 7 (6.7) 31 (8.86) 
No use 38 (15.4) 21 (20.2) 59 (16.86) 
Brushing of teeth Regular 180 (73.2) 74 (71.2) 254 (72.57) 0.149 (1) 0.699 
Irregular 66 (26.8) 30 (28.8) 96 (27.43) 
Agent used for brushing teeth Tooth paste 35 (14.2) 13 (12.5) 48 (13.71) 24.59 (4) <0.001* 
Tooth powder 63 (25.6) 12 (11.5) 75 (21.43) 
Stick 62 (25.2) 14 (13.5) 76 (21.72) 
Ash 61 (24.8) 48 (46.2) 109 (31.14) 
Salt 25 (10.2) 17 (16.3) 42 (12) 
Bathing practice Regular 52 (21.1) 4 (3.8) 56 (16) 16.26 (1) <0.001* 
Irregular 194 (78.9) 100 (96.2) 294 (84) 
Agent used for bathing Water only 77 (31.3) 15 (14.4) 92 (26.28) 12.54 (2) 0.002* 
Soap 38 (15.4) 14 (13.5) 52 (14.86) 
Irregular use of soap 131 (53.3) 75 (72.1) 206 (58.86) 
Washing of clothes Regular 167 (67.9) 75 (72.1) 242 (69.14) 0.61 (1) 0.434 
Irregular 79 (32.1) 29 (27.9) 108 (30.86) 

aSome of the variables comprise multiple responses.

*Significant p-value (<0.05).

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