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Table 1

Overview of some bias correction schemes

MethodAdvantageDisadvantageReference
Linear scaling (LS) Mean-based. A mean monthly correction factor is applied to the RCM-simulated daily precipitation in a month. It is the simplest BC method The daily precipitation sequence is the same as that of the RCM-simulated data (usually too many wet days compared to the observation). It does not account for the changes in the frequency distribution of precipitation. No adjustment is made to the temporal structure of daily precipitation occurrence Lenderink et al. (2007), Teutschbein & Seibert (2013)  
Local intensity scaling (LOCI) Mean-based. The wet-day frequency is corrected. A mean monthly correction factor is applied to the RCM-simulated daily precipitation in a month It does not account for the different changes in the frequency distribution of precipitation. No adjustment is made to the temporal structure of daily precipitation occurrence Schmidli et al. (2006)  
Power transformation (PT) Mean-based. A precipitation threshold can be introduced a priori to avoid too many drizzle days (i.e., very low but non-zero precipitation). Corrects mean and standard deviation (variance) events are adjusted non-linearly. Variability of corrected data is more consistent with original data Adjustment of wet-day frequencies and intensities only to some extent Leander & Buishand (2007)  
Quantile mapping based on an empirical distribution (QME) Distribution-based. Corrects the RCM-simulated precipitation based on point-wise daily constructed empirical cumulative distribution functions (ecdfs). The frequency of precipitation occurrence is corrected at the same time No adjustment is made to the temporal structure of daily precipitation occurrence Jakob Themeßl et al. (2011)  
Quantile mapping based on a gamma distribution (QMG) Distribution-based. Corrects the RCM-simulated precipitation based on a gamma distribution. The frequency of precipitation occurrence is corrected using the LOCI method The performance depends on whether the observed and RCM-simulated precipitation follows the gamma distribution (or not). No adjustment is made to the temporal structure of daily precipitation occurrence Piani et al. (2010), Teutschbein & Seibert (2012)  
MethodAdvantageDisadvantageReference
Linear scaling (LS) Mean-based. A mean monthly correction factor is applied to the RCM-simulated daily precipitation in a month. It is the simplest BC method The daily precipitation sequence is the same as that of the RCM-simulated data (usually too many wet days compared to the observation). It does not account for the changes in the frequency distribution of precipitation. No adjustment is made to the temporal structure of daily precipitation occurrence Lenderink et al. (2007), Teutschbein & Seibert (2013)  
Local intensity scaling (LOCI) Mean-based. The wet-day frequency is corrected. A mean monthly correction factor is applied to the RCM-simulated daily precipitation in a month It does not account for the different changes in the frequency distribution of precipitation. No adjustment is made to the temporal structure of daily precipitation occurrence Schmidli et al. (2006)  
Power transformation (PT) Mean-based. A precipitation threshold can be introduced a priori to avoid too many drizzle days (i.e., very low but non-zero precipitation). Corrects mean and standard deviation (variance) events are adjusted non-linearly. Variability of corrected data is more consistent with original data Adjustment of wet-day frequencies and intensities only to some extent Leander & Buishand (2007)  
Quantile mapping based on an empirical distribution (QME) Distribution-based. Corrects the RCM-simulated precipitation based on point-wise daily constructed empirical cumulative distribution functions (ecdfs). The frequency of precipitation occurrence is corrected at the same time No adjustment is made to the temporal structure of daily precipitation occurrence Jakob Themeßl et al. (2011)  
Quantile mapping based on a gamma distribution (QMG) Distribution-based. Corrects the RCM-simulated precipitation based on a gamma distribution. The frequency of precipitation occurrence is corrected using the LOCI method The performance depends on whether the observed and RCM-simulated precipitation follows the gamma distribution (or not). No adjustment is made to the temporal structure of daily precipitation occurrence Piani et al. (2010), Teutschbein & Seibert (2012)  
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