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Table 1

System information for Case 1

ParameterValue
Reservoir head, Hr 60 m 
Pipe internal diameter, D 500 mm 
Diameter of Leak 1, DL1 6.8 mm 
Diameter of Leak 2, DL2 11.6 mm 
Leak discharge coefficient, Cd 0.6 
Effective opening area of Leak 1, Cd1AL1 22 mm2 
Effective opening area of Leak 2, Cd2AL2 63 mm2 
Relative size of Leak 1, CdAL1/A 1.1 × 10−4 
Relative size of Leak 2, CdAL2/A 3.2 × 10−4 
Steady-state flow through valve, Q0 0.2 m3/s 
Steady-state flow through Leak 1, QL1 0.75 L/s 
Steady-state flow through Leak 2, QL1 2.08 L/s 
Wave speed in intact pipe, a0 1,200 m/s 
Wave speed in deteriorated section 1, a1 1,150 m/s 
Wave speed in deteriorated section 2, a2 1,100 m/s 
Darcy–Weisbach friction factor, f 0.015 
Normalized location of Leak 1, xL1 0.2 
Normalized location of Leak 2, xL2 0.7 
Impedance ratio of pipe to Leak 1, Zc/ZL1 0.00415 
Impedance ratio of pipe to Leak 2, Zc/ZL2 0.0116 
ParameterValue
Reservoir head, Hr 60 m 
Pipe internal diameter, D 500 mm 
Diameter of Leak 1, DL1 6.8 mm 
Diameter of Leak 2, DL2 11.6 mm 
Leak discharge coefficient, Cd 0.6 
Effective opening area of Leak 1, Cd1AL1 22 mm2 
Effective opening area of Leak 2, Cd2AL2 63 mm2 
Relative size of Leak 1, CdAL1/A 1.1 × 10−4 
Relative size of Leak 2, CdAL2/A 3.2 × 10−4 
Steady-state flow through valve, Q0 0.2 m3/s 
Steady-state flow through Leak 1, QL1 0.75 L/s 
Steady-state flow through Leak 2, QL1 2.08 L/s 
Wave speed in intact pipe, a0 1,200 m/s 
Wave speed in deteriorated section 1, a1 1,150 m/s 
Wave speed in deteriorated section 2, a2 1,100 m/s 
Darcy–Weisbach friction factor, f 0.015 
Normalized location of Leak 1, xL1 0.2 
Normalized location of Leak 2, xL2 0.7 
Impedance ratio of pipe to Leak 1, Zc/ZL1 0.00415 
Impedance ratio of pipe to Leak 2, Zc/ZL2 0.0116 
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