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Table 2

Comparisons of different sewage treatment processes in USTPs

ProcessTreatment scale (104 m3/d)Advantages in USTPsDisadvantages in USTPs
MBR 3.0–86.4 Low land occupation, high nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency, stable operation, little residual sludge generation, suitable for secondary and advanced treatment. High construction investment, high operation and maintenance costs. 
A/A/O (& multiple A/O) 2.0–32.0 Low construction investment, low operation and maintenance cost, high removal efficiency, stable effluent quality, can be combined with other processes. Large land occupation, high residual sludge generation, low carbon source consumption, needs other units for advanced treatment. 
MBBR 9.0 High treatment load, low construction investment and operating costs, low sludge yield, less land occupation. Low removal efficiency, low stability. 
SBR 1.0–5.0 Simple process flow, convenient management, low land occupation, low construction investment, good treatment efficiency, low sludge yield. High requirements for automation, high operation and maintenance cost. 
BAF 30.0 Low land occupation, high removal efficiency, low operation cost, strong impulsion load resistance. High requirements for automation, easy blockage, difficult backwashing. 
AS 0.2–34.0 Low construction investment, low operation and maintenance costs. Low removal efficiency, large land occupation, high sludge yield. 
ProcessTreatment scale (104 m3/d)Advantages in USTPsDisadvantages in USTPs
MBR 3.0–86.4 Low land occupation, high nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency, stable operation, little residual sludge generation, suitable for secondary and advanced treatment. High construction investment, high operation and maintenance costs. 
A/A/O (& multiple A/O) 2.0–32.0 Low construction investment, low operation and maintenance cost, high removal efficiency, stable effluent quality, can be combined with other processes. Large land occupation, high residual sludge generation, low carbon source consumption, needs other units for advanced treatment. 
MBBR 9.0 High treatment load, low construction investment and operating costs, low sludge yield, less land occupation. Low removal efficiency, low stability. 
SBR 1.0–5.0 Simple process flow, convenient management, low land occupation, low construction investment, good treatment efficiency, low sludge yield. High requirements for automation, high operation and maintenance cost. 
BAF 30.0 Low land occupation, high removal efficiency, low operation cost, strong impulsion load resistance. High requirements for automation, easy blockage, difficult backwashing. 
AS 0.2–34.0 Low construction investment, low operation and maintenance costs. Low removal efficiency, large land occupation, high sludge yield. 
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