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Table 1

Rejection values of PMOC on NF and RO membranes at the three investigated TMP

Rejection values (%)
NF
RO
8 bars10 bars15 bars8 bars10 bars15 bars
Ditolylguanidine 98.1% ± 0.7 96.6% ± 1.1 90.5% ± 3.0 94.3% ± 1.8 96.4% ± 1.2 96.3% ± 1.4 
1.3-Diphenylguanidine 94.0% ± 1.4 90.9% ± 1.9 88.7% ± 2.3 93.8% ± 1.4 96.1% ± 1.0 95.3% ± 1.5 
Amantadine 99.1% ± 0.4 98.4% ± 0.5 89.8% ± 0.9 94.1% ± 0.7 96.8% ± 0.5 95.8% ± 0.9 
Bisphenol S 99.3% ± 0.2 98.9% ± 0.3 95.9% ± 0.9 98.0% ± 0.5 97.2% ± 0.6 99.1% ± 0.3 
Acetoguanamine 92.5% ± 2.9 90.1% ± 3.2 91.4% ± 2.9 93.5% ± 2.9 <LOQ <LOQ 
Acesulfame potassium 99.6% ± 1.0 99.4% ± 0.2 95.3% ± 0.9 97.9% ± 0.5 97.3% ± 0.6 98.9% ± 0.3 
2-Toluenesulfonic acid <LOQ <LOQ 95.7% ± 0.5 98.1% ± 0.5 96.3% ± 0.5 <LOQ 
3.5-Ditertbutyl salicylic acid 98.6% ± 0.2 99.5% ± 0.1 97.0% ± 0.2 98.9% ± 0.2 98.5% ± 0.2 99.2% ± 0.1 
Naphthalenesulfonic acid <LOQ 99.5% ± 0.1 96.0% ± 0.5 98.1% ± 0.2 97.3% ± 0.4 <LOQ 
p-Toluenesulfonic acid <LOQ 99.6% ± 0.2 96.2% ± 0.7 98.4% ± 0.4 97.3% ± 0.6 99.4% ± 0.3 
Sulfanilic acid <LOQ <LOQ 98.3% ± 0.8 <LOQ 97.9% ± 1.1 <LOQ 
Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 99.7% ± 0.1 99.5% ± 0.1 95.4% ± 0.3 98.0% ± 0.2 97.4% ± 0.2 98.9% ± 0.1 
Benzyltrimethylammonium chloride 97.9% ± 0.8 95.8% ± 0.9 90.4% ± 1.0 94.3% ± 0.9 96.2% ± 0.9 95.1% ± 1.3 
ɛ-Caprolactam <LOQ <LOQ 92.5% ± 3.4 <LOQ <LOQ <LOQ 
Methyl sulfate sodium salt <LOQ 98.7% ± 0.5 96.4% ± 0.6 98.7% ± 0.4 91.7% ± 1.4 <LOQ 
Sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate <LOQ 99.7% ± 0.1 96.8% ± 0.4 98.5% ± 0.2 95.9% ± 0.5 99.0% ± 0.2 
Sodium O-xylene-4-sulfonate <LOQ <LOQ 96.2% ± 0.3 98.3% ± 0.3 96.1% ± 0.4 <LOQ 
Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate <LOQ <LOQ 
Total quantified compounds 13 17 15 15 10 
LOQ: limit of quantification in permeate; standard error in percentage points (pp)    
Rejection values (%)
NF
RO
8 bars10 bars15 bars8 bars10 bars15 bars
Ditolylguanidine 98.1% ± 0.7 96.6% ± 1.1 90.5% ± 3.0 94.3% ± 1.8 96.4% ± 1.2 96.3% ± 1.4 
1.3-Diphenylguanidine 94.0% ± 1.4 90.9% ± 1.9 88.7% ± 2.3 93.8% ± 1.4 96.1% ± 1.0 95.3% ± 1.5 
Amantadine 99.1% ± 0.4 98.4% ± 0.5 89.8% ± 0.9 94.1% ± 0.7 96.8% ± 0.5 95.8% ± 0.9 
Bisphenol S 99.3% ± 0.2 98.9% ± 0.3 95.9% ± 0.9 98.0% ± 0.5 97.2% ± 0.6 99.1% ± 0.3 
Acetoguanamine 92.5% ± 2.9 90.1% ± 3.2 91.4% ± 2.9 93.5% ± 2.9 <LOQ <LOQ 
Acesulfame potassium 99.6% ± 1.0 99.4% ± 0.2 95.3% ± 0.9 97.9% ± 0.5 97.3% ± 0.6 98.9% ± 0.3 
2-Toluenesulfonic acid <LOQ <LOQ 95.7% ± 0.5 98.1% ± 0.5 96.3% ± 0.5 <LOQ 
3.5-Ditertbutyl salicylic acid 98.6% ± 0.2 99.5% ± 0.1 97.0% ± 0.2 98.9% ± 0.2 98.5% ± 0.2 99.2% ± 0.1 
Naphthalenesulfonic acid <LOQ 99.5% ± 0.1 96.0% ± 0.5 98.1% ± 0.2 97.3% ± 0.4 <LOQ 
p-Toluenesulfonic acid <LOQ 99.6% ± 0.2 96.2% ± 0.7 98.4% ± 0.4 97.3% ± 0.6 99.4% ± 0.3 
Sulfanilic acid <LOQ <LOQ 98.3% ± 0.8 <LOQ 97.9% ± 1.1 <LOQ 
Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 99.7% ± 0.1 99.5% ± 0.1 95.4% ± 0.3 98.0% ± 0.2 97.4% ± 0.2 98.9% ± 0.1 
Benzyltrimethylammonium chloride 97.9% ± 0.8 95.8% ± 0.9 90.4% ± 1.0 94.3% ± 0.9 96.2% ± 0.9 95.1% ± 1.3 
ɛ-Caprolactam <LOQ <LOQ 92.5% ± 3.4 <LOQ <LOQ <LOQ 
Methyl sulfate sodium salt <LOQ 98.7% ± 0.5 96.4% ± 0.6 98.7% ± 0.4 91.7% ± 1.4 <LOQ 
Sodium acryloyldimethyltaurate <LOQ 99.7% ± 0.1 96.8% ± 0.4 98.5% ± 0.2 95.9% ± 0.5 99.0% ± 0.2 
Sodium O-xylene-4-sulfonate <LOQ <LOQ 96.2% ± 0.3 98.3% ± 0.3 96.1% ± 0.4 <LOQ 
Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate <LOQ <LOQ 
Total quantified compounds 13 17 15 15 10 
LOQ: limit of quantification in permeate; standard error in percentage points (pp)    

Feed water: dechlorinated drinking water; PMOC: 10−6 mol L−1; duration: 78 h; temperature: 20 °C.

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