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Table 2

Application of MNBs in different sectors

AreaApplication
Agriculture MNB-treated water in agriculture improves the soil's physiological and biological conditions by encouraging aerobic microorganisms, which improves soil particle structure, water absorption and oxygen dissolution, levels of the rhizosphere, microbial species and phosphate and urease, which positively impact plant growth (Takahashi et al. 2007; Teixeira et al. 2010).
NB water reduces CH4 emission and arsenic dissolution through an oxidative shift of the redox conditions in the flooded soil (Minamikawa et al. 2015).
MNBs accelerate metabolism in animal and plant species (Liu et al. 2013a; Ebina et al. 2013).
MNB use in hydroponics solutions for cleaning and sterilization of irrigation water (ozone bubbles) (Takahashi et al. 2007).
The high oxygen content and permeability of MNBs promotes plant root growth, enhances nutrient absorption, shortens the growth cycle and hence improves economic efficiency (Nakano et al. 2009; Inatsu et al. 2011).
MNB application through a drip kills bacteria, removes harmful substances and odors from water, and improves freshness and taste and yield of fruits and vegetables (Takahashi et al. 2007).
MNB use for biological and weed control (i.e., facilitating Triopsidae growth, which stops weed growth in rice fields and also decreases chemical and fertilizer usage) (Serizawa 2017).
MNB water improves the rate of seed germination (Liu et al. 2013b). 
Aquaculture and fisheries MNBs improves blood flow and branchial respiration of fish (Serizawa 2017).
MNBs can be applied to the purification of sludge at the sea bottom (the air is supplied to sludge in the form of nanobubbles, which can recover the poor oxygen condition at the sea bottom, activate marine life and decompose organic substances) (Serizawa 2017).
MNB-treated water application on aquatic plants and fisheries significantly increases growth by improving nutrient uptake (Cho et al. 2019). 
Cellular biological MNBs are used in fermentation (Marui 2013). 
Medical MNBs are used to diagnose tumors in the human body by ultrasonic imaging (Yin et al. 2012).
MNBs are used for curing cancer patients in different forms and treatment methods (Lukianova-Hleb et al. 2014; Orel et al. 2017).
MNBs are used in dental treatment and the conditions that affect the teeth and gums (insertion, repair, and extraction of teeth) (Hayakumo et al. 2014; Gulafsha & Anuroopa 2019).
MNBs are used for the detection of malaria (Kreft & Jetz 2007; Rebelo et al. 2016).
MNBs are used in genetics (drug–oxygen–gene delivery nexus) (Cavalli et al. 2009; Thakur et al. 2019). 
Industry energy systems MNBs eliminate mixed oil and carbon from water and provide economic benefits for water reuse (dissolving air with polyelectrolytes with hydrogen MNBs) (Tansel & Pascual 2011).
MNBs are used in solar energy (solar vapor nanobubble generation as a result of the complex interaction of several phenomena that occur at the nanoscale and can be used in a variety of applications, i.e., solar steam energy NB generation) (Polman 2013). 
Domestic uses Oxygen produced by ozone decomposition generates ions that can oxidize pollutants in drinking water (Batagoda et al. 2019).
MNBs are used in laundry and tableware. Their use in swimming pools, showers, and bathtubs for strong antioxidant effects have subsequent health benefits such as removal of aging skin, deep-rooted dust particles, bacteria, and chemical residue, which accelerate skin metabolism, and blood circulation (Nessbert 2017; Nikusystec 2019). 
AreaApplication
Agriculture MNB-treated water in agriculture improves the soil's physiological and biological conditions by encouraging aerobic microorganisms, which improves soil particle structure, water absorption and oxygen dissolution, levels of the rhizosphere, microbial species and phosphate and urease, which positively impact plant growth (Takahashi et al. 2007; Teixeira et al. 2010).
NB water reduces CH4 emission and arsenic dissolution through an oxidative shift of the redox conditions in the flooded soil (Minamikawa et al. 2015).
MNBs accelerate metabolism in animal and plant species (Liu et al. 2013a; Ebina et al. 2013).
MNB use in hydroponics solutions for cleaning and sterilization of irrigation water (ozone bubbles) (Takahashi et al. 2007).
The high oxygen content and permeability of MNBs promotes plant root growth, enhances nutrient absorption, shortens the growth cycle and hence improves economic efficiency (Nakano et al. 2009; Inatsu et al. 2011).
MNB application through a drip kills bacteria, removes harmful substances and odors from water, and improves freshness and taste and yield of fruits and vegetables (Takahashi et al. 2007).
MNB use for biological and weed control (i.e., facilitating Triopsidae growth, which stops weed growth in rice fields and also decreases chemical and fertilizer usage) (Serizawa 2017).
MNB water improves the rate of seed germination (Liu et al. 2013b). 
Aquaculture and fisheries MNBs improves blood flow and branchial respiration of fish (Serizawa 2017).
MNBs can be applied to the purification of sludge at the sea bottom (the air is supplied to sludge in the form of nanobubbles, which can recover the poor oxygen condition at the sea bottom, activate marine life and decompose organic substances) (Serizawa 2017).
MNB-treated water application on aquatic plants and fisheries significantly increases growth by improving nutrient uptake (Cho et al. 2019). 
Cellular biological MNBs are used in fermentation (Marui 2013). 
Medical MNBs are used to diagnose tumors in the human body by ultrasonic imaging (Yin et al. 2012).
MNBs are used for curing cancer patients in different forms and treatment methods (Lukianova-Hleb et al. 2014; Orel et al. 2017).
MNBs are used in dental treatment and the conditions that affect the teeth and gums (insertion, repair, and extraction of teeth) (Hayakumo et al. 2014; Gulafsha & Anuroopa 2019).
MNBs are used for the detection of malaria (Kreft & Jetz 2007; Rebelo et al. 2016).
MNBs are used in genetics (drug–oxygen–gene delivery nexus) (Cavalli et al. 2009; Thakur et al. 2019). 
Industry energy systems MNBs eliminate mixed oil and carbon from water and provide economic benefits for water reuse (dissolving air with polyelectrolytes with hydrogen MNBs) (Tansel & Pascual 2011).
MNBs are used in solar energy (solar vapor nanobubble generation as a result of the complex interaction of several phenomena that occur at the nanoscale and can be used in a variety of applications, i.e., solar steam energy NB generation) (Polman 2013). 
Domestic uses Oxygen produced by ozone decomposition generates ions that can oxidize pollutants in drinking water (Batagoda et al. 2019).
MNBs are used in laundry and tableware. Their use in swimming pools, showers, and bathtubs for strong antioxidant effects have subsequent health benefits such as removal of aging skin, deep-rooted dust particles, bacteria, and chemical residue, which accelerate skin metabolism, and blood circulation (Nessbert 2017; Nikusystec 2019). 
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