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Table 1

Characteristics of hybrid constructed wetlands

ParametersHCWMHCW-1MHCW-2
Length × width × height 2.0 × 2.0 × 1.5 m 2.0 × 2.0 × 1.5 m 2.0 × 2.0 × 1.5 m 
Surface area 4 m2 4 m2 4 m2 
Number of substrate layers 
Plant species (5 plants/m2 for each plant species) Phragmites australis and Cyperus alternifolius Phragmites australis and Cyperus alternifolius Phragmites australis and Cyperus alternifolius 
Earthworm species (5 kg m−3– – Perionys excavatus 
Depth of filter 1.2 m 1.2 m 1.2 m 
Saturated with water 0.6 m 0.6 m 0.6 m 
Average flow 0.1 m3 day−1 0.1 m3 day−1 0.1 m3 day−1 
HLR (hydraulic loading rate) 0.17 m day−1 0.17 m day−1 0.17 m day−1 
ParametersHCWMHCW-1MHCW-2
Length × width × height 2.0 × 2.0 × 1.5 m 2.0 × 2.0 × 1.5 m 2.0 × 2.0 × 1.5 m 
Surface area 4 m2 4 m2 4 m2 
Number of substrate layers 
Plant species (5 plants/m2 for each plant species) Phragmites australis and Cyperus alternifolius Phragmites australis and Cyperus alternifolius Phragmites australis and Cyperus alternifolius 
Earthworm species (5 kg m−3– – Perionys excavatus 
Depth of filter 1.2 m 1.2 m 1.2 m 
Saturated with water 0.6 m 0.6 m 0.6 m 
Average flow 0.1 m3 day−1 0.1 m3 day−1 0.1 m3 day−1 
HLR (hydraulic loading rate) 0.17 m day−1 0.17 m day−1 0.17 m day−1 
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