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Table 2

Concentrations (mg L−1) of environment parameters (mean ± standard error) in INLET and the modified constructed wetlands (HCW, MHCW-1 and MHCW-2)

Filters-N-NTKN-PTPCODBOD5TSS
INLET 22.5 ± 1.2 41.1 ± 1.2 48.9 ± 3.3 2.4 ± 0.1 5.1 ± 0.4 185.4 ± 13.7 149.7 ± 14.6 26.8 ± 2.5 
HCW-1 8.2 ± 3.1** 26.8 ± 1.2**** 36.5 ± 2.5*** 1.7 ± 0.2**** 4.1 ± 0.3** 42.2 ± 4.9**** 95.6 ± 12.2**** 6.4 ± 1.6**** 
MHCW-1 8.6 ± 3.7** 27.5 ± 1.0**** 32.5 ± 3.4*** 1.5 ± 0.1**** 3.7 ± 0.3** 41.9 ± 3.7**** 68.7 ± 14.7**** 6.5 ± 1.9**** 
MHCW-2 8.1 ± 3.4** 23.8 ± 1.3**** 28.9 ± 2.8*** 1.4 ± 0.1**** 3.4 ± 0.3** 39.1 ± 4.1**** 43.1 ± 9.4**** 5.3 ± 1.6**** 
Vietnam's standarda 10 50 – 10 – 150 50 100 
Filters-N-NTKN-PTPCODBOD5TSS
INLET 22.5 ± 1.2 41.1 ± 1.2 48.9 ± 3.3 2.4 ± 0.1 5.1 ± 0.4 185.4 ± 13.7 149.7 ± 14.6 26.8 ± 2.5 
HCW-1 8.2 ± 3.1** 26.8 ± 1.2**** 36.5 ± 2.5*** 1.7 ± 0.2**** 4.1 ± 0.3** 42.2 ± 4.9**** 95.6 ± 12.2**** 6.4 ± 1.6**** 
MHCW-1 8.6 ± 3.7** 27.5 ± 1.0**** 32.5 ± 3.4*** 1.5 ± 0.1**** 3.7 ± 0.3** 41.9 ± 3.7**** 68.7 ± 14.7**** 6.5 ± 1.9**** 
MHCW-2 8.1 ± 3.4** 23.8 ± 1.3**** 28.9 ± 2.8*** 1.4 ± 0.1**** 3.4 ± 0.3** 39.1 ± 4.1**** 43.1 ± 9.4**** 5.3 ± 1.6**** 
Vietnam's standarda 10 50 – 10 – 150 50 100 

Note: Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between INLET and HCW and MHCWs (** for p < 0.01; *** for p < 0.001; **** for p < 0.0001).

aVietnam's technical regulation on domestic wastewater discharge quality (QCVN 40:2011/BTNMT). –: undefined.

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