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Table 2.

Energy metrics/indicators that can be applied to WSS.

Energy indicators Dynamic (require hydrodynamic simulation or measurement through long period) Modeling network efficiency and carbon emissions (see Boulos & Bros, 2010) 
Modeling network energy use (see Cabrera et al., 2010; Gay & Sinha, 2012; Dziedzic & Karney, 2015; Mamade et al., 2015; Lapprasert et al., 2018). Metrics do evaluate energy performance at pipe level (Hashemi et al., 2018) 
Static (do not require hydrodynamic simulation) Based on average differences in elevation and pumping (see Pelli & Hitz, 2000; Mamade, et al., 2015). Based on simplified assessment with minimum data (Mamade, et al., 2015; Mamade et al., 2017) 
Energy indicators Dynamic (require hydrodynamic simulation or measurement through long period) Modeling network efficiency and carbon emissions (see Boulos & Bros, 2010) 
Modeling network energy use (see Cabrera et al., 2010; Gay & Sinha, 2012; Dziedzic & Karney, 2015; Mamade et al., 2015; Lapprasert et al., 2018). Metrics do evaluate energy performance at pipe level (Hashemi et al., 2018) 
Static (do not require hydrodynamic simulation) Based on average differences in elevation and pumping (see Pelli & Hitz, 2000; Mamade, et al., 2015). Based on simplified assessment with minimum data (Mamade, et al., 2015; Mamade et al., 2017) 
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