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Table 2.

Estimates of d under the assumption of white noise errors.

SeriesNo termsAninterceptA linear time trend
Asia Pacific and Russia 0.99 (0.96, 1.02) 1.00 (0.94, 1.03) 1.00 (0.94, 1.03) 
Europe 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 0.98 (0.95, 1.02) 0.98 (0.95, 1.02) 
USA 0.97 (0.94, 1.01) 0.95 (0.92, 0.98) 0.95 (0.92, 0.98) 
Latin America 0.98 (0.89, 1.10) 1.03 (0.93, 1.16) 1.03 (0.93, 1.16) 
Global 1.01 (0.98, 1.04) 1.04 (1.00, 1.07) 1.04 (1.00, 1.07) 
SeriesNo termsAninterceptA linear time trend
Asia Pacific and Russia 0.99 (0.96, 1.02) 1.00 (0.94, 1.03) 1.00 (0.94, 1.03) 
Europe 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 0.98 (0.95, 1.02) 0.98 (0.95, 1.02) 
USA 0.97 (0.94, 1.01) 0.95 (0.92, 0.98) 0.95 (0.92, 0.98) 
Latin America 0.98 (0.89, 1.10) 1.03 (0.93, 1.16) 1.03 (0.93, 1.16) 
Global 1.01 (0.98, 1.04) 1.04 (1.00, 1.07) 1.04 (1.00, 1.07) 

The selected models in terms of the deterministic components are given in bold; 95% bands of the non-rejection values of d using Robinson (1994) are in parentheses.

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