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Table 1

Indicators used to characterize sensitivity to drought and coping capacity in the study region

FactorsIndicatorOriginal variable considered to build the indicatorData source
Sensitivity Water IND1: Water source unreliability Main source of drinking water (%). Luetkemeier & Liehr (2018) methodology is applied. The analysis of the seasonal changes (wet-dry) of the combination of sources used in the communes indicates their reliability levels Angola Census 2014 (INE) 
IND2: Water unsafeness Main source of drinking water (%). Census establishes a differentiation between safe and unsafe water source types. Based on this classification, each water source has been scored according to its (un)safeness, with a 0–1 score. Then, each score is multiplied by the percentage of the commune relying on that type of water source and added up per commune 
IND3: Financial dependence Main source of drinking water (%). Source types that require financial inputs: boreholes and tanker trucks. Logically, boreholes are the least weather related water supply option and are more reliable, but only if there is capacity for maintenance, which does not seem the case for the region 
IND4: Water demand Average household size in the commune was taken as a reference for water demand as a more relevant measure of population density for large communes with empty lands, a very frequent case in southern Angola 
Livelihood IND5: Livestock density Livestock per square kilometre Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2007)  
IND6: Practise of agriculture Households that practise agriculture (%) Angola Census 2014 (INE) 
Social IND7: Rural exodus Sex ratio or masculinity index@@@Exodus normally means more sensitive families. However, if absent family members work in non-rural or non-agricultural jobs and have independent income to share, the family becomes less vulnerable, so the direction of the influence needs to be proven for south Angola 
Coping capacity Energy IND8: Energy endowment Use of electricity (%) 
Human capital IND9: Work force Population between 15 and 65 years old (%). Higher rates imply more ability to diversify activities, move or stay in appropriate health conditions, among other copying advantages 
IND10: Education level Literacy rate (%, is used to evaluate the productive wealth embodied in skills and knowledge 
Physical capital IND11: House walls' material Wattle and daub (Pau-a-pique) built houses (%), relying on the building materials as proxy to the assets that a commune counts on 
FactorsIndicatorOriginal variable considered to build the indicatorData source
Sensitivity Water IND1: Water source unreliability Main source of drinking water (%). Luetkemeier & Liehr (2018) methodology is applied. The analysis of the seasonal changes (wet-dry) of the combination of sources used in the communes indicates their reliability levels Angola Census 2014 (INE) 
IND2: Water unsafeness Main source of drinking water (%). Census establishes a differentiation between safe and unsafe water source types. Based on this classification, each water source has been scored according to its (un)safeness, with a 0–1 score. Then, each score is multiplied by the percentage of the commune relying on that type of water source and added up per commune 
IND3: Financial dependence Main source of drinking water (%). Source types that require financial inputs: boreholes and tanker trucks. Logically, boreholes are the least weather related water supply option and are more reliable, but only if there is capacity for maintenance, which does not seem the case for the region 
IND4: Water demand Average household size in the commune was taken as a reference for water demand as a more relevant measure of population density for large communes with empty lands, a very frequent case in southern Angola 
Livelihood IND5: Livestock density Livestock per square kilometre Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2007)  
IND6: Practise of agriculture Households that practise agriculture (%) Angola Census 2014 (INE) 
Social IND7: Rural exodus Sex ratio or masculinity index@@@Exodus normally means more sensitive families. However, if absent family members work in non-rural or non-agricultural jobs and have independent income to share, the family becomes less vulnerable, so the direction of the influence needs to be proven for south Angola 
Coping capacity Energy IND8: Energy endowment Use of electricity (%) 
Human capital IND9: Work force Population between 15 and 65 years old (%). Higher rates imply more ability to diversify activities, move or stay in appropriate health conditions, among other copying advantages 
IND10: Education level Literacy rate (%, is used to evaluate the productive wealth embodied in skills and knowledge 
Physical capital IND11: House walls' material Wattle and daub (Pau-a-pique) built houses (%), relying on the building materials as proxy to the assets that a commune counts on 
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