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Table 1

Infrared radiation absorption by gases and other elements and their potential emission sources

General groupGasesEmission sources
GHGs CO2 Fossil fuels burning by transportation and industry (Le Quéré et al. 2009) 
Electricity production (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Burning of international bunker fuel (Raupach et al. 2007) 
Chemical reactions in industry (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Solid waste management (SWM) in landfills (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Wastewater treatment and sludge management process (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Livestock management (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Land use change (LUC) (Le Quéré et al. 2009) 
Oceans (Olivier et al. 1996) 
CH4 Paddy cultivation (Lelieveld et al. 1998) 
Wetlands due to organic degradation (Lelieveld et al. 1998) 
From streams and river beds (Stanley et al. 2016) 
From digestive tracts of termites because of protozoa and bacteria (Lelieveld et al. 1998) 
Microbes in oceans (Lelieveld et al. 1998) 
Wild ruminants and domestic animals (Crutzen et al. 1986) 
SWM in landfills (Lelieveld et al. 1998) 
Industrial and domestic waste and sludge management by anaerobic process (Isaksen et al. 2014) 
Biomass burning (Lelieveld et al. 1998) 
Venting and flaring from oil and gas industry (Isaksen et al. 2014) 
Coal mining and other minings (Isaksen et al. 2014) 
Polar region (Shakhova et al. 2019) 
NOx Domestic wastewater treatment plants (Griffis et al. 2017) 
Fossil fuel burning and other combustions (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Synthetic fertilizer use in agriculture (Griffis et al. 2017) 
Animal manure applied to soils (Olivier et al. 2017) 
Direct emission from soil (Olivier et al. 2017) 
Forest fires (Griffis et al. 2017) 
Farming process and biomass burning (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Transportation and power generation (Olivier et al. 1996) 
O3 Reaction with NOx and volatile organic carbons (VOC) (Olivier et al. 1996) 
During thunderstorms (Olivier et al. 1996) 
CFCs & HCFCs Heating and cooling process (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Solvent use (Olivier et al. 1996) 
NMVOC Biofuels and biomass burning (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Bulk chemical production (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Oil and gas industry (Grazόn et al. 2015) 
Road transportation (Grazόn et al. 2015) 
Painting (Grazόn et al. 2015) 
SOx Volcanic eruption (Bates et al. 1992) 
Sludge management (Liu et al. 2012) 
LU & plants (Bates et al. 1992) 
Algae in oceans (Charlson et al. 1987) 
Chemicals and metals production (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Agricultural waste and fossil fuel burning (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Other elements absorbing infrared radiation Aerosols Mineral and sea salt dust (Boucher 2015) 
Burning process (Boucher 2015) 
Water vapors From different sources 
CO Wild fire (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Biomass burning (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Road transportation and energy production (Olivier et al. 1996) 
HCl Power and heat generation (McCulloch et al. 1999) 
Chlorinated content burning (McCulloch et al. 1999) 
Hydrogen (H2Biomass burning (Derwent et al. 2006) 
Methane and organic compounds oxidation (Derwent et al. 2006) 
Road transportation (Derwent et al. 2006) 
General groupGasesEmission sources
GHGs CO2 Fossil fuels burning by transportation and industry (Le Quéré et al. 2009) 
Electricity production (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Burning of international bunker fuel (Raupach et al. 2007) 
Chemical reactions in industry (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Solid waste management (SWM) in landfills (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Wastewater treatment and sludge management process (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Livestock management (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Land use change (LUC) (Le Quéré et al. 2009) 
Oceans (Olivier et al. 1996) 
CH4 Paddy cultivation (Lelieveld et al. 1998) 
Wetlands due to organic degradation (Lelieveld et al. 1998) 
From streams and river beds (Stanley et al. 2016) 
From digestive tracts of termites because of protozoa and bacteria (Lelieveld et al. 1998) 
Microbes in oceans (Lelieveld et al. 1998) 
Wild ruminants and domestic animals (Crutzen et al. 1986) 
SWM in landfills (Lelieveld et al. 1998) 
Industrial and domestic waste and sludge management by anaerobic process (Isaksen et al. 2014) 
Biomass burning (Lelieveld et al. 1998) 
Venting and flaring from oil and gas industry (Isaksen et al. 2014) 
Coal mining and other minings (Isaksen et al. 2014) 
Polar region (Shakhova et al. 2019) 
NOx Domestic wastewater treatment plants (Griffis et al. 2017) 
Fossil fuel burning and other combustions (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Synthetic fertilizer use in agriculture (Griffis et al. 2017) 
Animal manure applied to soils (Olivier et al. 2017) 
Direct emission from soil (Olivier et al. 2017) 
Forest fires (Griffis et al. 2017) 
Farming process and biomass burning (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Transportation and power generation (Olivier et al. 1996) 
O3 Reaction with NOx and volatile organic carbons (VOC) (Olivier et al. 1996) 
During thunderstorms (Olivier et al. 1996) 
CFCs & HCFCs Heating and cooling process (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Solvent use (Olivier et al. 1996) 
NMVOC Biofuels and biomass burning (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Bulk chemical production (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Oil and gas industry (Grazόn et al. 2015) 
Road transportation (Grazόn et al. 2015) 
Painting (Grazόn et al. 2015) 
SOx Volcanic eruption (Bates et al. 1992) 
Sludge management (Liu et al. 2012) 
LU & plants (Bates et al. 1992) 
Algae in oceans (Charlson et al. 1987) 
Chemicals and metals production (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Agricultural waste and fossil fuel burning (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Other elements absorbing infrared radiation Aerosols Mineral and sea salt dust (Boucher 2015) 
Burning process (Boucher 2015) 
Water vapors From different sources 
CO Wild fire (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Biomass burning (Olivier et al. 1996) 
Road transportation and energy production (Olivier et al. 1996) 
HCl Power and heat generation (McCulloch et al. 1999) 
Chlorinated content burning (McCulloch et al. 1999) 
Hydrogen (H2Biomass burning (Derwent et al. 2006) 
Methane and organic compounds oxidation (Derwent et al. 2006) 
Road transportation (Derwent et al. 2006) 
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