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Table 1

High recovery RO system design and operating conditions

Flowsheet systemsFeed
Membrane reject
Recycle flow (LPH)BW time (min)List of additional equipment used
Q (LPH)V (m/s)Q (LPH)V (m/s)
System I (D) 16.5 0.008 1.5 0.0008 NA NA Basic units 
System II (D) 40 0.020 25 0.0127 25 NA Basic units, recycle tank 
System III (D) 40 0.020 25 0.0127 23.5 NA Basic units, recycle tank, SV 
System III (S) 40 0.020 25 0.0127 23.5 NA Basic units, recycle tank, SV 
System IV (D) 16.5 0.008 1.5 0.0008 NA 6–8 Basic units, HPS, SV, timer, pressure tank 
System V (D) 40 0.020 25 0.0127 25 6–8 Basic units, HPS, SV, timer, pressure tank 
System V (S) 40 0.020 25 0.0127 25 6–8 Basic units, recycle tank, HPS, SV, timer, pressure tank 
System VI (D) 40 0.020 25 0.0127 23.5 6–8 Basic units, recycle tank, HPS, SV, timer, pressure tank 
Flowsheet systemsFeed
Membrane reject
Recycle flow (LPH)BW time (min)List of additional equipment used
Q (LPH)V (m/s)Q (LPH)V (m/s)
System I (D) 16.5 0.008 1.5 0.0008 NA NA Basic units 
System II (D) 40 0.020 25 0.0127 25 NA Basic units, recycle tank 
System III (D) 40 0.020 25 0.0127 23.5 NA Basic units, recycle tank, SV 
System III (S) 40 0.020 25 0.0127 23.5 NA Basic units, recycle tank, SV 
System IV (D) 16.5 0.008 1.5 0.0008 NA 6–8 Basic units, HPS, SV, timer, pressure tank 
System V (D) 40 0.020 25 0.0127 25 6–8 Basic units, HPS, SV, timer, pressure tank 
System V (S) 40 0.020 25 0.0127 25 6–8 Basic units, recycle tank, HPS, SV, timer, pressure tank 
System VI (D) 40 0.020 25 0.0127 23.5 6–8 Basic units, recycle tank, HPS, SV, timer, pressure tank 

Q = flow and V = velocity.

Basic units: pump, pressure gauge, RO membrane, LPS, flow control valve (FCV).

Operating condition: feed pressure = 5.2 bar, BW pressure = 5.2 bar.

Designed permeate flowrate = ∼15 LPH. Note: S, single leaf, D, dual leaf.

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