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Table 1

Summary of selected HWT methods and their microbial performances (WHO 2015, 2016, 2017)

HWT technologyMicrobial performance
Filtration method 
Ultrafiltration Effective against viruses (depending on the integrity of the membrane), bacteria and protozoa 
Porous ceramic filtration Effective against bacteria and protozoa 
Limited effectiveness against viruses 
Thermal method 
Boiling Effective in inactivating bacteria, viruses and protozoa 
Photolytic methods 
UV disinfection Effective against viruses, bacteria and protozoa 
Solar disinfection Potentially effective against viruses, bacteria, and protozoa depending on the container material and climatic and weather conditions 
Chemical method 
Flocculation-disinfection Effective against viruses, bacteria, and protozoa 
Chlorination Effective against bacteria and some viruses 
 Ineffective against protozoan cysts (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum
HWT technologyMicrobial performance
Filtration method 
Ultrafiltration Effective against viruses (depending on the integrity of the membrane), bacteria and protozoa 
Porous ceramic filtration Effective against bacteria and protozoa 
Limited effectiveness against viruses 
Thermal method 
Boiling Effective in inactivating bacteria, viruses and protozoa 
Photolytic methods 
UV disinfection Effective against viruses, bacteria and protozoa 
Solar disinfection Potentially effective against viruses, bacteria, and protozoa depending on the container material and climatic and weather conditions 
Chemical method 
Flocculation-disinfection Effective against viruses, bacteria, and protozoa 
Chlorination Effective against bacteria and some viruses 
 Ineffective against protozoan cysts (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum
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