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Table 5

DBPs control with filtration method

No.Filter technique and filter mediaTarget DBPsKey findingsReference
Residential filter containing AC and ion exchange resin; Commercial system using RO, MF and UV THMs Residential filter produced an almost 50% reduction in total THMs Gibbons & Laha (1999)  
Brita filters containing AC and ion exchange resin; Aquaphor filters containing AC; Rodnik filter containing AC THMs, HAAs, MX TCM removal efficiency of 90% by Brita filters and 95% by Aquaphor filters were achieved after 150 L of use Egorov et al. (2003)  
   As Aquaphor filter use increased from 1 to 150 L, reductions of 97 and 59% for DCAA as well as 95 and 63% for TCAA were observed  
   Removal rate of MX (up to >99%) and THM by tested filters was consistently higher than that of HAAs  
AC filters and RO/deionized water system THMs, HAAs Four AC PoU devices reduced THM4 (93–99%) and HAA9 (68–95%) levels Weinberg et al. (2006)  
   RO/deionized water system removed 48% of THMs and 100% of HAAs  
Brita devices with AC and ion exchange resin THMs, HAAs The average removal rate of THMs was up to ∼90% Leuesque et al. (2006)  
   HAAs were reduced when using new filters (72%) or used filters (54%)  
GAC unit and RO unit THMs Properly functioning GAC and RO units both removed ∼70% of total THMs Smith & El Komos (2009)  
Brita Classic Pitcher THMs, HAAs THMs were reduced by 84–89% using new and used filters Chowdhury et al. (2010)  
   HAAs were removed significantly using new and used filters (71 and 58%, respectively)  
Domestic jug fitted with ion exchange and AC filtration THMs, HAAs Significant reductions in THMs (93%) and HAAs (82%) were reported Rahman et al. (2011)  
Pitcher filter containing GAC and ion exchange resin; Household RO filtering system THMs, MX, bromate RO led to the highest THM4 reduction (97%), with almost a 99% reduction for the bromine-containing species Carrasco-Turigas et al. (2013)  
   TCM had higher removal rate when using a pitcher filter (91% for the new filter) in comparison to the RO system (56%)  
   Bromate concentration decreased after pitcher filtration with 1 L of usage but increased after 75 L  
   MX concentration decreased below the LOQ after filtration  
RO filters; Non-membrane pressure filters; Gravity filters AOX 6 out of 11 filters effectively removed AOCl and AOBr by >60% Stalter et al. (2016)  
   RO and gravity filter containing AC removed >94% of AOCl, AOBr and AOI  
No.Filter technique and filter mediaTarget DBPsKey findingsReference
Residential filter containing AC and ion exchange resin; Commercial system using RO, MF and UV THMs Residential filter produced an almost 50% reduction in total THMs Gibbons & Laha (1999)  
Brita filters containing AC and ion exchange resin; Aquaphor filters containing AC; Rodnik filter containing AC THMs, HAAs, MX TCM removal efficiency of 90% by Brita filters and 95% by Aquaphor filters were achieved after 150 L of use Egorov et al. (2003)  
   As Aquaphor filter use increased from 1 to 150 L, reductions of 97 and 59% for DCAA as well as 95 and 63% for TCAA were observed  
   Removal rate of MX (up to >99%) and THM by tested filters was consistently higher than that of HAAs  
AC filters and RO/deionized water system THMs, HAAs Four AC PoU devices reduced THM4 (93–99%) and HAA9 (68–95%) levels Weinberg et al. (2006)  
   RO/deionized water system removed 48% of THMs and 100% of HAAs  
Brita devices with AC and ion exchange resin THMs, HAAs The average removal rate of THMs was up to ∼90% Leuesque et al. (2006)  
   HAAs were reduced when using new filters (72%) or used filters (54%)  
GAC unit and RO unit THMs Properly functioning GAC and RO units both removed ∼70% of total THMs Smith & El Komos (2009)  
Brita Classic Pitcher THMs, HAAs THMs were reduced by 84–89% using new and used filters Chowdhury et al. (2010)  
   HAAs were removed significantly using new and used filters (71 and 58%, respectively)  
Domestic jug fitted with ion exchange and AC filtration THMs, HAAs Significant reductions in THMs (93%) and HAAs (82%) were reported Rahman et al. (2011)  
Pitcher filter containing GAC and ion exchange resin; Household RO filtering system THMs, MX, bromate RO led to the highest THM4 reduction (97%), with almost a 99% reduction for the bromine-containing species Carrasco-Turigas et al. (2013)  
   TCM had higher removal rate when using a pitcher filter (91% for the new filter) in comparison to the RO system (56%)  
   Bromate concentration decreased after pitcher filtration with 1 L of usage but increased after 75 L  
   MX concentration decreased below the LOQ after filtration  
RO filters; Non-membrane pressure filters; Gravity filters AOX 6 out of 11 filters effectively removed AOCl and AOBr by >60% Stalter et al. (2016)  
   RO and gravity filter containing AC removed >94% of AOCl, AOBr and AOI  
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