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Table 6

DBP control with water boiling

No.Residual disinfectantBoiling device or procedureTarget DBPsKey findingsReference
Free chlorine Water samples were boiled for 1 or 5 min in glass beakers covered with watch glasses THMs, HAAs, HANs, HALs, HNMs, TOX As boil time increased from 1 to 5 min, reductions of 68 and 83% for TCM as well as 74 and 95% for BDCM were observed Wu et al. (2001)  
DCAA levels showed a two-fold increase, and TCAA decreased (31–46%) while MCAA increased (27–30%) upon boiling 
    Other identifiable DBPs declined dramatically upon boiling, and TOX was reduced by 44% after 5 min of boiling  
Free chlorine or chloramine Water samples were boiled using a tea kettle on a stovetop for 1, 2, and 5 min THMs, HAAs, HANs, HALs, HNMs DXAAs were seemingly unchanged upon boiling chloraminated water, whereas TXAA levels decreased over time (e.g., 9–37% for TCAA) Krasner & Wright (2005)  
    In the chlorinated samples, DXAA concentrations increased over time (58–68%) while TCAA levels decreased by 30% after 5 min of boiling  
    THM concentrations were reduced in both chloraminated (74–98%) and chlorinated (64–98%) waters upon boiling  
    Most remaining DBPs (e.g., TCAL, HANs, HNM) were removed by at least 90% after 1 min of boiling in both water samples  
Free chlorine Water was heated for ∼5 min in an electric kettle that automatically cut off when boiling began THMs Boiling cold tap water could remove more than 98% of the THM4 Weinberg et al. (2006)  
Free chlorine Water was boiled using a plastic kettle which was turned off 30 s after onset of boiling and water was left to cool in the kettle for 5 min THMs, HAAs THMs reduction by boiling water for 30 s averaged 83% Leuesque et al. (2006)  
Average total concentrations of HAAs were apparently unchanged upon boiling, while boiling resulted in an increase in DCAA level (35%) and a decrease in TCAA level (42%) 
Free chlorine Boiling was performed in a plastic kettle, which was turned off 30 s after onset of boiling and the water was left to cool in the kettle for 5 min THMs, HAAs Boiling of tap water reduced THMs by 82–83% Chowdhury et al. (2010)  
DCAA increased by 22–49% while TCAA decreased by 34–62% 
Chloramine Boiling experiment was carried out using a domestic electric kettle which kept water at a rolling boil for 10–15 s and an instant boiling water unit THMs, HAAs The mean concentrations of THMs were consistently and substantially reduced by boiling (86–94%) Rahman et al. (2011)  
Kettle boiling did not reduce total HAAs but instant boiling did (28%) 
    BCAA was reduced in instant boiled water (53%) but not in kettle  
    Boiling removed TCAA (25% for kettle and 94% for instant unit) but increased DCAA levels (12% for kettle and 17% for instant unit)  
Free chlorine and chloramine Boiling experiment was performed using a lidded electric kettle, a saucepan and a microwave oven. Once the water reached boiling point, heat source was immediately turned off THMs, MX, bromate Among the three devices, microwave oven performed the highest THM4 reduction (97%) and kettle showed the lowest (48%) Carrasco-Turigas et al. (2013)  
Bromate concentration increased in saucepan tests (21%) but decreased in kettle tests (40%) 
MX concentration decreased below the LOQ during boiling 
Free chlorine Samples were heated to boiling (at 100 °C) in open 5 L glass beakers, and kept boiling for 5 min TOX TOCl and TOBr in one sample were reduced by 39 and 44%, respectively, and in the other sample were reduced by 52 and 38%, separately Liu et al. (2015)  
No.Residual disinfectantBoiling device or procedureTarget DBPsKey findingsReference
Free chlorine Water samples were boiled for 1 or 5 min in glass beakers covered with watch glasses THMs, HAAs, HANs, HALs, HNMs, TOX As boil time increased from 1 to 5 min, reductions of 68 and 83% for TCM as well as 74 and 95% for BDCM were observed Wu et al. (2001)  
DCAA levels showed a two-fold increase, and TCAA decreased (31–46%) while MCAA increased (27–30%) upon boiling 
    Other identifiable DBPs declined dramatically upon boiling, and TOX was reduced by 44% after 5 min of boiling  
Free chlorine or chloramine Water samples were boiled using a tea kettle on a stovetop for 1, 2, and 5 min THMs, HAAs, HANs, HALs, HNMs DXAAs were seemingly unchanged upon boiling chloraminated water, whereas TXAA levels decreased over time (e.g., 9–37% for TCAA) Krasner & Wright (2005)  
    In the chlorinated samples, DXAA concentrations increased over time (58–68%) while TCAA levels decreased by 30% after 5 min of boiling  
    THM concentrations were reduced in both chloraminated (74–98%) and chlorinated (64–98%) waters upon boiling  
    Most remaining DBPs (e.g., TCAL, HANs, HNM) were removed by at least 90% after 1 min of boiling in both water samples  
Free chlorine Water was heated for ∼5 min in an electric kettle that automatically cut off when boiling began THMs Boiling cold tap water could remove more than 98% of the THM4 Weinberg et al. (2006)  
Free chlorine Water was boiled using a plastic kettle which was turned off 30 s after onset of boiling and water was left to cool in the kettle for 5 min THMs, HAAs THMs reduction by boiling water for 30 s averaged 83% Leuesque et al. (2006)  
Average total concentrations of HAAs were apparently unchanged upon boiling, while boiling resulted in an increase in DCAA level (35%) and a decrease in TCAA level (42%) 
Free chlorine Boiling was performed in a plastic kettle, which was turned off 30 s after onset of boiling and the water was left to cool in the kettle for 5 min THMs, HAAs Boiling of tap water reduced THMs by 82–83% Chowdhury et al. (2010)  
DCAA increased by 22–49% while TCAA decreased by 34–62% 
Chloramine Boiling experiment was carried out using a domestic electric kettle which kept water at a rolling boil for 10–15 s and an instant boiling water unit THMs, HAAs The mean concentrations of THMs were consistently and substantially reduced by boiling (86–94%) Rahman et al. (2011)  
Kettle boiling did not reduce total HAAs but instant boiling did (28%) 
    BCAA was reduced in instant boiled water (53%) but not in kettle  
    Boiling removed TCAA (25% for kettle and 94% for instant unit) but increased DCAA levels (12% for kettle and 17% for instant unit)  
Free chlorine and chloramine Boiling experiment was performed using a lidded electric kettle, a saucepan and a microwave oven. Once the water reached boiling point, heat source was immediately turned off THMs, MX, bromate Among the three devices, microwave oven performed the highest THM4 reduction (97%) and kettle showed the lowest (48%) Carrasco-Turigas et al. (2013)  
Bromate concentration increased in saucepan tests (21%) but decreased in kettle tests (40%) 
MX concentration decreased below the LOQ during boiling 
Free chlorine Samples were heated to boiling (at 100 °C) in open 5 L glass beakers, and kept boiling for 5 min TOX TOCl and TOBr in one sample were reduced by 39 and 44%, respectively, and in the other sample were reduced by 52 and 38%, separately Liu et al. (2015)  
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