Skip to Main Content
Table 1

Description of the three managing groups selected for the comparative study of pit-emptying

Managing groupDescription and structure
The Kenya Association of Wastewater Managers (referred to as The Wastewater Association’) 
  • An association of VTOs

  • Serves as an intermediary to link customers to VTOs

  • Subcontracts jobs to formal manual emptying groups as needed

  • VTOs operate in all of Kisumu

 
Vukasasa 
  • A community-based organization that provides safe manual emptying services

  • Able to subcontract jobs to VTOs, though rarely applied in practice

  • Only operates in the low-income area ‘Nyalenda’

 
Nyalenda Water Association (referred to as Nyalenda Water’) 
  • A small-scale water supplier that provides water in low-income areas

  • Overseen by Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company (KIWASCO) through a delegated management model

  • Only operates in the low-income area ‘Nyalenda’

  • No previous experience in sanitation and, therefore, manages pit-emptying by subcontracting jobs to VTOs or formal manual emptiers

 
Managing groupDescription and structure
The Kenya Association of Wastewater Managers (referred to as The Wastewater Association’) 
  • An association of VTOs

  • Serves as an intermediary to link customers to VTOs

  • Subcontracts jobs to formal manual emptying groups as needed

  • VTOs operate in all of Kisumu

 
Vukasasa 
  • A community-based organization that provides safe manual emptying services

  • Able to subcontract jobs to VTOs, though rarely applied in practice

  • Only operates in the low-income area ‘Nyalenda’

 
Nyalenda Water Association (referred to as Nyalenda Water’) 
  • A small-scale water supplier that provides water in low-income areas

  • Overseen by Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company (KIWASCO) through a delegated management model

  • Only operates in the low-income area ‘Nyalenda’

  • No previous experience in sanitation and, therefore, manages pit-emptying by subcontracting jobs to VTOs or formal manual emptiers

 
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal