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Table 2

Costs of safe emptying and transport: capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operating expenditures (OPEX) incurred by pit-emptying service providers in Kisumu, Kenya

Formal manual emptying
VTOs
Cost categoryCost per emptying (KES)Cost per emptying (USD)Relative costsCost per emptying (KES)Cost per emptying (USD)Relative costs
OPEX costs Truck rental 3,000 30 49% – – – 
Salary/labor (for 1 toilet) 2,550 25.50 41% 1,117 11.17 69% 
Office costs 78 0.78 1.3% – – – 
Disinfectant consumables 245 2.45 4% – – – 
Maintenance – – – 56 0.56 3% 
Fuel – – – 232 2.32 14% 
License/membership    85 0.85 5% 
Total OPEX  5,873 58.73 95% 1,489 14.89 91% 
CAPEX costs Registrations – – – 0.08 0.5% 
Emptying equipment 77 0.77 1% 125a 1.251 8%1 
Safety equipmentb 220 2.20 4% 0.08 0.5% 
Total CAPEX  296 2.96 5% 140 1.40 9% 
Total costs  6,169 61.69 100% 1,630 16.30 100% 
Formal manual emptying
VTOs
Cost categoryCost per emptying (KES)Cost per emptying (USD)Relative costsCost per emptying (KES)Cost per emptying (USD)Relative costs
OPEX costs Truck rental 3,000 30 49% – – – 
Salary/labor (for 1 toilet) 2,550 25.50 41% 1,117 11.17 69% 
Office costs 78 0.78 1.3% – – – 
Disinfectant consumables 245 2.45 4% – – – 
Maintenance – – – 56 0.56 3% 
Fuel – – – 232 2.32 14% 
License/membership    85 0.85 5% 
Total OPEX  5,873 58.73 95% 1,489 14.89 91% 
CAPEX costs Registrations – – – 0.08 0.5% 
Emptying equipment 77 0.77 1% 125a 1.251 8%1 
Safety equipmentb 220 2.20 4% 0.08 0.5% 
Total CAPEX  296 2.96 5% 140 1.40 9% 
Total costs  6,169 61.69 100% 1,630 16.30 100% 

For formal manual emptying, we report data obtained from the Vukasasa organization; costs were similar for the other two formal manual emptying groups.

Note: exchange rate is 1.00 USD = 100 KES (6 June 2019, oanda.com).

aFor VTOs, the emptying equipment cost includes an exhauster truck and hoses; for formal manual emptiers, the truck price is captured in the truck rental fee.

bThe amortized cost of safety equipment is higher for formal manual emptying than VTOs primarily because of economies of scale: formal emptying groups were emptying an average of five pits per month, compared to VTOs that were emptying an average of six per day. However, economies of scale would not affect the operating expenditures, which drive the costs for both services: operating costs are 95% of total formal manual emptying costs and 91% of total VTO costs.

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