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Table 3

Activity summary of managing groups: number of pits emptied, volume of fecal sludge emptied, and types of toilets served based on validated data

Managing groupThe Wastewater AssociationVukasasaNyalenda Water
Number of pits emptieda 135 41 18 
Volume of sludge emptied (L)b 1,065,600 147,120 95,960 
Average sludge volume per job (L) 7,893 3,588 5,331 
Number of pits by service provider 120 VTOs, 15 formal manual emptiers 41 formal manual emptiers (Vukasasa) 9 VTOs, 9 formal manual emptiers 
Number of tripsc 120 VTO, 39 formal manual emptier (Gasia Poa) 118 formal manual emptiers (Vukasasa) 9 VTO, 26 formal manual emptiers 
Number of toilet facilities servicedd Septic tank (flush/pour-flush) 13 (17%) 2 (5%) 6 (35%) 
Pit latrine (flush/pour-flush) 12 (15%) 7 (17%) 5 (29%) 
Ventilated improved pit latrine 15 (19%) 5 (12%) 1 (6%) 
Dry pit latrine with slab 38 (49%) 27 (66%) 5 (29%) 
Managing groupThe Wastewater AssociationVukasasaNyalenda Water
Number of pits emptieda 135 41 18 
Volume of sludge emptied (L)b 1,065,600 147,120 95,960 
Average sludge volume per job (L) 7,893 3,588 5,331 
Number of pits by service provider 120 VTOs, 15 formal manual emptiers 41 formal manual emptiers (Vukasasa) 9 VTOs, 9 formal manual emptiers 
Number of tripsc 120 VTO, 39 formal manual emptier (Gasia Poa) 118 formal manual emptiers (Vukasasa) 9 VTO, 26 formal manual emptiers 
Number of toilet facilities servicedd Septic tank (flush/pour-flush) 13 (17%) 2 (5%) 6 (35%) 
Pit latrine (flush/pour-flush) 12 (15%) 7 (17%) 5 (29%) 
Ventilated improved pit latrine 15 (19%) 5 (12%) 1 (6%) 
Dry pit latrine with slab 38 (49%) 27 (66%) 5 (29%) 

aWe excluded all records that were not validated by independent enumerators (e.g., households not found or no emptying done) from analysis: these included 1 record for The Wastewater Association, 19 for Vukasasa, and 26 for Nyalenda Water.

bWe estimated the volume of sludge removed by VTOs based on exhauster truck capacity. We estimated the volume of sludge removed via formal manual emptying by multiplying the number of barrels used (of either 60, 120, or 210 L capacity) with the number of trips required to transport the sludge to the treatment site.

cVTOs conducted one trip per pit, while the formal manual emptiers conducted an average of two to three trips per pit.

dData are based on follow-up surveys: n = 78 for The Wastewater Association, n = 41 for Vukasasa, and n = 18 for Nyalenda water.

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