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Table 1

Handwashing observation data (pre–post-intervention)

ThemePre-interventionPost-intervention
Availability of soap at handwashing stations (HWSs) Water: Enough running water at all HWSs and toilets. Water: Enough potable running water at all HWSs and toilets. 
Soap: There were few HWSs and no provision of soap in HWSs and toilets. Soap: There were more HWSs after intervention than before and each HWSs and toilet had soap in soap holders. 
Soap used to wash hands No student washed their hands with soap and water, even before mid-day snack and after toilet use. Almost all girl students washed hands with soap and water before mid-day snack and after toilet use. However, few boy students used soap for handwashing. 
Handwashing skills No girl/boy students washed their hands according to WHO recommended six steps. Generally, handwashing was done only with water, no rubbing and rinsing hands thoroughly. Students did not spend time drying hands after washing. Almost all girls and most of the boys washed their hands following the WHO recommended six steps. Mostly, handwashing was done with soap and water by rubbing and rinsing hands thoroughly. Comparatively better handwashing by senior grades than the junior grades. Hands were dried in air. 
Time is taken to wash their hands None of the students used more than 12 s for handwashing. In comparison to boys, girls washed their hands for a little longer. Students washed their hands with soap and water for 10–20 s. 
ThemePre-interventionPost-intervention
Availability of soap at handwashing stations (HWSs) Water: Enough running water at all HWSs and toilets. Water: Enough potable running water at all HWSs and toilets. 
Soap: There were few HWSs and no provision of soap in HWSs and toilets. Soap: There were more HWSs after intervention than before and each HWSs and toilet had soap in soap holders. 
Soap used to wash hands No student washed their hands with soap and water, even before mid-day snack and after toilet use. Almost all girl students washed hands with soap and water before mid-day snack and after toilet use. However, few boy students used soap for handwashing. 
Handwashing skills No girl/boy students washed their hands according to WHO recommended six steps. Generally, handwashing was done only with water, no rubbing and rinsing hands thoroughly. Students did not spend time drying hands after washing. Almost all girls and most of the boys washed their hands following the WHO recommended six steps. Mostly, handwashing was done with soap and water by rubbing and rinsing hands thoroughly. Comparatively better handwashing by senior grades than the junior grades. Hands were dried in air. 
Time is taken to wash their hands None of the students used more than 12 s for handwashing. In comparison to boys, girls washed their hands for a little longer. Students washed their hands with soap and water for 10–20 s. 
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