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Table 2

Soil erosion rates in different land uses

Land useAnnual ground lowering
Annual erosion rate (t ha−1 yr−1)Soil erosion class (Kisan et al. 2016)
Mean (mm a−1)SD
Primary forest −0.36 (Clarke & Walsh 2006) 4.25 Nill  
MOP (Borneo) −6.38 to 43.72 (Annammala et al. 2012) Nill Nill  
HCVF −9.63 5.92 87.63 Very severe 
LF −3.03 10.16 25.45 Very high 
MOP −0.67 5.31 8.44 Moderate 
MR −0.5 3.76 5.9 Slight 
Land useAnnual ground lowering
Annual erosion rate (t ha−1 yr−1)Soil erosion class (Kisan et al. 2016)
Mean (mm a−1)SD
Primary forest −0.36 (Clarke & Walsh 2006) 4.25 Nill  
MOP (Borneo) −6.38 to 43.72 (Annammala et al. 2012) Nill Nill  
HCVF −9.63 5.92 87.63 Very severe 
LF −3.03 10.16 25.45 Very high 
MOP −0.67 5.31 8.44 Moderate 
MR −0.5 3.76 5.9 Slight 
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