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Table 4

Examples of top-performing rootstock and scion combinations in vegetable crops under induced salinity stress

Sl. no.RootstockScionKey improved characteristicsReference
Salinity stress 
 1 
  • a)

    Macis (Lagenaria siceraria Standl., Nunhems Zaden, The Netherlands)

  • b)

    Ercole (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne X Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Nunhems Zaden, The Netherlands)

 
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cv. Tex Increased total soluble solid content, dry matter, and sugar content Colla et al. (2006)  
 2 
  • a)

    Black seeded figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché)

  • b)

    Chaofeng Kangshengwang (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.)

 
Cucumber plant (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Jinchun No. 2 Grafted plants possessed significantly higher scion dry weight, more soluble sugars and micronutrient content Huang et al. (2010)  
 3 Cucurbita hybrid rootstocks (Cucurbita maxima Duch. X Cucurbita moschata Duch.) ‘P360’ and ‘PS13132’ 
  • a)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Cyrano

  • b)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Akito

 
  • 1.

    Lesser reduction in the leaf area index in grafted plants.

  • 2.

    Smaller effect of salinity on the net photosynthetic rate (PN) and stomatal conductance (gs) in grafted individuals

 
Rouphael et al. (2012)  
 4 Cucurbita hybrid rootstock (Cucurbita maxima Duch. X Cucurbita moschata Duch.) ‘PS1313’ Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Akito Relatively higher chlorophyll content (SPAD index), better net assimilation rate, and higher nutritional value Colla et al. (2012)  
 5 
  • a)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Affyne

  • b)

    Cucurbita hybrid rootstock (Cucurbita maxima Duch. X Cucurbita moschata Duch.) ‘P360’

 
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Ekron 
  • 1.

    Higher PSII photochemical activity

  • 2.

    Lesser reduction in chlorophyll content (SPAD index)

    Better GPX activity resulting in the enhanced antioxidant system

 
Colla et al. (2013)  
 6 Interspecific tomato hybrid rootstocks (Solanum lycopersicum X S. habrochaites) ‘Maxifort’. ‘Arnold’ & ‘Armstrong’ Tomato (S. lycopersicum L.) cv. Cuore di Bue Higher fruit juice Na+ content Di Gioia et al. (2013)  
 7 Chaofeng Kangshengwang (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cv. Xiuli Increase in the total biomass and NO3 Yang et al. (2013)  
 8 Interspecific squash rootstock (Cucurbita maxima Duch. X Cucurbita moschata Duch.) ‘RS841 improved’ Melon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Brennus and London 
  • 1.

    Improved plant biomass and leaf area

  • 2.

    Enhanced ion partitioning resulting in the selective uptake of K+

  • 3.

    Better stomatal regulation under salt stress conditions

 
Orsini et al. (2013)  
 9 Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) cv. Chaojiquanwang Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Jinchun No. 2 1. Relatively higher activities of dehydroascorbate reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were observed in the chloroplasts of grafted plants providing better H2O2-scavenging capacity
4. Enhanced net CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates 
Zhen et al. (2011)  
 10 a) Capsicum chinense Jacq. ‘ECU-973’
Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum ‘BOL-58’ 
Pepper (Capsicum annum) cv. Adige 2. Lesser negative impact on the nitrate reductase activity, photosynthetic rate, and lipid peroxidation Penella et al. (2014)  
Sl. no.RootstockScionKey improved characteristicsReference
Salinity stress 
 1 
  • a)

    Macis (Lagenaria siceraria Standl., Nunhems Zaden, The Netherlands)

  • b)

    Ercole (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne X Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Nunhems Zaden, The Netherlands)

 
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cv. Tex Increased total soluble solid content, dry matter, and sugar content Colla et al. (2006)  
 2 
  • a)

    Black seeded figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché)

  • b)

    Chaofeng Kangshengwang (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.)

 
Cucumber plant (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Jinchun No. 2 Grafted plants possessed significantly higher scion dry weight, more soluble sugars and micronutrient content Huang et al. (2010)  
 3 Cucurbita hybrid rootstocks (Cucurbita maxima Duch. X Cucurbita moschata Duch.) ‘P360’ and ‘PS13132’ 
  • a)

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Cyrano

  • b)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Akito

 
  • 1.

    Lesser reduction in the leaf area index in grafted plants.

  • 2.

    Smaller effect of salinity on the net photosynthetic rate (PN) and stomatal conductance (gs) in grafted individuals

 
Rouphael et al. (2012)  
 4 Cucurbita hybrid rootstock (Cucurbita maxima Duch. X Cucurbita moschata Duch.) ‘PS1313’ Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Akito Relatively higher chlorophyll content (SPAD index), better net assimilation rate, and higher nutritional value Colla et al. (2012)  
 5 
  • a)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Affyne

  • b)

    Cucurbita hybrid rootstock (Cucurbita maxima Duch. X Cucurbita moschata Duch.) ‘P360’

 
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Ekron 
  • 1.

    Higher PSII photochemical activity

  • 2.

    Lesser reduction in chlorophyll content (SPAD index)

    Better GPX activity resulting in the enhanced antioxidant system

 
Colla et al. (2013)  
 6 Interspecific tomato hybrid rootstocks (Solanum lycopersicum X S. habrochaites) ‘Maxifort’. ‘Arnold’ & ‘Armstrong’ Tomato (S. lycopersicum L.) cv. Cuore di Bue Higher fruit juice Na+ content Di Gioia et al. (2013)  
 7 Chaofeng Kangshengwang (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cv. Xiuli Increase in the total biomass and NO3 Yang et al. (2013)  
 8 Interspecific squash rootstock (Cucurbita maxima Duch. X Cucurbita moschata Duch.) ‘RS841 improved’ Melon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Brennus and London 
  • 1.

    Improved plant biomass and leaf area

  • 2.

    Enhanced ion partitioning resulting in the selective uptake of K+

  • 3.

    Better stomatal regulation under salt stress conditions

 
Orsini et al. (2013)  
 9 Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) cv. Chaojiquanwang Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Jinchun No. 2 1. Relatively higher activities of dehydroascorbate reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were observed in the chloroplasts of grafted plants providing better H2O2-scavenging capacity
4. Enhanced net CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates 
Zhen et al. (2011)  
 10 a) Capsicum chinense Jacq. ‘ECU-973’
Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum ‘BOL-58’ 
Pepper (Capsicum annum) cv. Adige 2. Lesser negative impact on the nitrate reductase activity, photosynthetic rate, and lipid peroxidation Penella et al. (2014)  
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