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Table 1

Barriers along the water chain in the analyzed projects

Project/case studyCollectionTreatmentIrrigationHarvest
MULTI-ReUse  Tertiary treatment UF Disinfection (UV-radiation) Energy and industrial crops  
HypoWave Standard case Controlled sewage collection: No industrial indirect dischargers, no hospitals Biological treatment (ASP, SBR) Biofilter/activated carbon Disinfection (Ozone, UV-radiation) Water only in contact with roots, plastic cover between root and shoot of the plants Specific hygiene measures by the quality assurance system agreed with the trade or purchaser 
HypoWave Weißenberge Controlled sewage collection: No industrial indirect dischargers, no hospitals WSP (natural UV-radiation, cold temperatures) Biofilter/activated carbon Disinfection (UV-radiation) Water only in contact with roots, plastic cover between root and shoot of the plants Specific hygiene measures by the quality assurance system agreed with the trade or purchaser 
EPoNa Controlled sewage collection: No industrial indirect dischargers Pretreatment line A: Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor or micro sieve WSP (natural UV-radiation) Rock filter in pond A4 Animal fodder  
Project/case studyCollectionTreatmentIrrigationHarvest
MULTI-ReUse  Tertiary treatment UF Disinfection (UV-radiation) Energy and industrial crops  
HypoWave Standard case Controlled sewage collection: No industrial indirect dischargers, no hospitals Biological treatment (ASP, SBR) Biofilter/activated carbon Disinfection (Ozone, UV-radiation) Water only in contact with roots, plastic cover between root and shoot of the plants Specific hygiene measures by the quality assurance system agreed with the trade or purchaser 
HypoWave Weißenberge Controlled sewage collection: No industrial indirect dischargers, no hospitals WSP (natural UV-radiation, cold temperatures) Biofilter/activated carbon Disinfection (UV-radiation) Water only in contact with roots, plastic cover between root and shoot of the plants Specific hygiene measures by the quality assurance system agreed with the trade or purchaser 
EPoNa Controlled sewage collection: No industrial indirect dischargers Pretreatment line A: Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor or micro sieve WSP (natural UV-radiation) Rock filter in pond A4 Animal fodder  
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