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Table 1

Leachate characteristics and treatability based on the landfill age

Age (years) Young Intermediate Old 
0–5 5–10 >10 
pH <6.5 6.5–7.5 >7.5 
COD (mg/L) >10,000 5,000–10,000 <5,000 
BOD5/COD 0.5–1.0 0.1–0.5 >0.1 
NH3–N (mg/L) <400 – >400 
H.M Medium to low Low Low 
VFA/HFA VFA (80%) VFA (5–30%) + HFA HFA (80%) 
Biodegradability High Medium Low 
Age (years) Young Intermediate Old 
0–5 5–10 >10 
pH <6.5 6.5–7.5 >7.5 
COD (mg/L) >10,000 5,000–10,000 <5,000 
BOD5/COD 0.5–1.0 0.1–0.5 >0.1 
NH3–N (mg/L) <400 – >400 
H.M Medium to low Low Low 
VFA/HFA VFA (80%) VFA (5–30%) + HFA HFA (80%) 
Biodegradability High Medium Low 

H.M, heavy metals; VFH, volatile fatty acids; HFA, humic and fluvic acids.

(Sources: Aziz 2012; Yadav & Dikshit 2017; Tejera et al. 2019).

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