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Table 3

Reported landfill leachate treatment methods

CompoundsRemoval (mg/L) or Removal efficiency (%)Treatment methodRemarksCategoryReferences
Ammonia 94.5% Adsorption/Photo-Fenton-Ozone Pre-treatment was done via activated carbon (Sawdust) activated by H3PO4. After the adsorption process, the leachate was moved to a solar photo-Fenton/O3 process. Advanced oxidation process/Adsorption Poblete & Pérez (2020)  
COD 95.1% 
Colour 95.0% 
HA (ABS25497.9% 
COD 94% Electrocoagulation/Fiber filtration Anodic electrodes were arranged in parallel. After electrocoagulation with aluminium or iron electrodes, the treated landfill leachate was applied to two stages of fiber filters. Advanced oxidation process/Coagulation/Adsorption Li et al. (2017)  
As 87% 
Fe 96% 
86% 
COD 3,381.9 mg/L Electro-catalytic ozonation The current density was 42.1 mA/cm2, and ozone concentrations varied 100–400 mg/h. This method increased biodegradability index from 0.27 to 0.45. Advanced oxidation process Ghahrchi & Rezaee (2020)  
BOD 1,521 mg/L 
Ammonia 90% Supercritical water oxidation (ScWO)/Zeolite ScWO was operated under a pressure of 23 MPa at 600 and 700 °C, without the addition of oxidants. Zeolite was used by following ScWO. Advanced oxidation process/Adsorption (ion-exchange) Scandelai et al. (2020)  
Nitrite 100% 
Nitrate 98% 
Colour 98% 
Turbidity 98% 
COD 74% 
COD 83.3% Kefir grains/Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalytic Biological pre-treatment was done in 250 mL beakers containing 50 mL of leachate inoculated with Kefir grains. Then, leachate was moved for treatment by using Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalytic. Advanced oxidation process/biological method Elleuch et al. (2020)  
Ammonia 70.0% 
Cd 100% 
Ni 94.0% 
Zn 62.5% 
Mn 53.1% 
Cu 47.5% 
COD 68% Coagulation/Photo-Fenton Ferric chloride in acidic condition and Alum in neutral condition were used as coagulant.
The photo-Fenton process was conducted using a high-pressure mercury immersion lamp of 450 W from ACE-Glass. 
Advanced oxidation process/Coagulation Tejera et al. (2019)  
Colour 97% 
HA (UV-254) 83% 
COD 97.8% Fenton process The Fenton reaction was done by adding powdered ferrous sulphate and an appropriate H2O2:Fe2+ ratio. Advanced oxidation process Roudi et al. (2018)  
COD 90.2% Coagulation-flocculation/ Microelectrolysis-Fenton processes Landfill leachate was treated by chemical flocculation with polyaluminium chloride (PAC) as flocculant, and subsequently purified by microelectrolysis-Fenton process. Concentration of H2O2 (mg/L) varied 2.66–4. Advance oxidation process/Coagulation-flocculation Luo et al. (2019)  
HA 93.7% 
COD 88.2% Electro-ozonation/adsorbent augmented SBR At first stage, the raw concentrated leachate was treated by electro-ozonation reactor. The electro-ozone reactor was reinforced by a cross-column ozone chamber to develop ozone gas diffusion. Furthermore, the ozone reactor was supported with anode and cathode plates (Ti/RuO2–IrO2, 18 cm × 8 cm). After that leachate was moved to the second reactor (SBR + Composite adsorbent). Advanced oxidation process/biological/adsorption Mojiri et al. (2017)  
Colour 96.1% 
Ni 73.4% 
Colour >90% EO/Coagulation Al2(SO4)3 with dosage of 50 g/L was added as coagulant. And two stainless steel plates were applied as electrodes. Sodium sulphate 0.1 mol/L was added to the leachate in order to improve the conductivity of the solution. Advanced oxidation process/coagulation de Oliveira et al. (2019)  
Turbidity >90% 
Ammonia >90% 
COD 36% UVsolar/O3/H2O2//Zeolite Ozone, hydrogen peroxide and UVsolar were considered in the same reactor with leachate to produce a high amount of hydroxyl radicals, which have a short life. The was added directly. Then, treated leachate was treated by zeolite. Advanced oxidation process /adsorption Poblete et al. (2019)  
Ammonia 99% 
COD 91% UV-based sulphate radical oxidation process/Coagulation-flocculation For coagulation-flocculation (pre-treatment), ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used, with COD:FeCl3 ratio = 1:1.3, as the coagulant. Then, leachate was treated by UV-based sulphate radical oxidation process (UV-SRAOP). For UV/SRAOP, the sulphate radical was produced using UV-activated persulphate (UV/PS) and peroxymonosulphate (UV/PMS). Advanced oxidation process/Coagulation-flocculation Ishak et al. (2018)  
Colour 100% Ozone/catalyst (ZrCl4Zirconium tetrachloride was added, dosage 1.2 g (COD/ZrCl4), as a catalyst to ozone reactor. Advanced oxidation process Abu Amr et al. (2017)  
COD 88% 
Ammonia 79% 
COD 16.5% Vermiculite/Ozonation Rotating packed bed reactor was used to provide greater gas diffusion to the medium. Optimum operation conditions were as follows: rotation of 915 rpm, pH of 5.8 and ozone flow of 3.9 L/min. Biodegradability was increased (BOD5/COD), from 0.13 to 0.49 by this treatment method. Advanced oxidation process Braga et al. (2020)  
Colour 40.5% 
COD 72% MAC/Ozonation MnCe-ACs were produced by impregnating Mn and Ce oxides onto granular activated carbon surfaces. MnCe-AC was added to a cylinder and ozone was added from bottom of the reactor. Advanced oxidation process/Adsorption Wang et al. (2015a, 2015b) 
HA 91% 
COD 100% Activated carbon (Oat hulls) Oat hulls adsorbents were activated with phosphoric acid and pyrolysed (N2 atmosphere) at 350 and 500 °C. Adsorption methods Ferraz & Yuan (2020)  
Colour 100% 
COD 51.0% Activated carbon (Coffee wastes) The washed coffee was oven-dried at 105 °C for 24 h prior to activation. And then it was activated via H3PO4Adsorption methods Chávez et al. (2019)  
Ammonia 32.8% 
Chlorine 66.0% 
Bromine 81.0% 
Copper 97.1% 
COD 93.6% Zero-valent iron nanofibers/reduced ultra-large graphene oxide (ZVINFs/rULGO) At the optimum condition, pH, dosage of ZVINFs/rULGO and reaction time were 3, 1.6 g/L and 45 min. Adsorption methods Soubh et al. (2018)  
Ammonia 84.8% 
COD 77.3% Silica nanoparticle At the optimum condition, pH and dosage of adsorbent were 6 and 90 min. Adsorption methods Pavithra & Shanthakumar (2017)  
Colour 82.5% 
COD 49% Zeolite Feldspar Mineral Composite Adsorbent Samples were shaken for 5 h with 200 rpm at pH 7. Adsorption methods Daud et al. (2016)  
Ammonia 45% 
COD 65.5–92.1% Amino acid modified bentonite Batch experiments were done under contact time 20–100 min, pH 2–11 and bentonite dosage of 10–40 g/L. Adsorption methods Hajjizadeh et al. (2020)  
Pb 99.2 MS@GG MS@GG was produced by modification of melamine sponge (MS) with polydopamine (PDA) and then coat with glutathione/graphene oxide. Adsorption methods Feng et al. (2019)  
COD 53.5% Tannin-Based Natural Coagulant Tannin dosage and pH were 0.73 g and 6, respectively. Coagulation/flocculation Banch et al. (2019)  
Ammonia 91.3% 
TSS 60.2% 
Fe 89.7% 
Zn 94.6% 
Cu 94.1% 
Cr 89.9% 
Cd 17.2% 
Pb 93.7% 
As 86.4% 
COD 61.9% Polyaluminium chloride and Dimocarpus longan Seeds as Flocculants A coagulation–flocculation process using a combination of Polyaluminium chloride (PACl) as a coagulant and Dimocarpus longan seed powder (LSP) as coagulant aid was done. Coagulation/flocculation Aziz et al. (2018)  
Colour 98.8% 
SS 99.5% 
COD 66.9% Red earth as coagulant The optimal pH and the optimal coagulant dosage were 5.0 and of 9,000 mg/L, respectively. Coagulation/flocculation Zainol et al. (2018)  
Ammonia 43.3% 
Turbidity 96.2% 
COD 45% Ferric chloride as coagulant and a cationic flocculant AN 934-SH polyelectrolytes as flocculant The pH was fixed at 6.3. Optimum condition was 7.2 g/L FeCl3 and 0.2 mL/L Flocculant. Coagulation/flocculation Taoufik et al. (2018)  
COD 94.6% Using membrane processes of NF and RO A working pressure and flow rate were set at 15 bar and 750 mL/min. The surface area of the membranes was 10.7 cm. Membrane Košutić et al. (2015)  
Ammonia Up to 88.9% 
COD
BOD Ammonia 
17.5–48.5% 45.4–81.6% 50–98.8% Using Aspergillus flavus The A. flavus strain were isolated form leachate contaminated soil. Bioremediation with the fungi Zegzouti et al. (2020)  
COD 40% Using Brevibacillus panacihumi strain ZB1 The pure colonies of B. panacihumi strain ZB1 were grown in sterile nutrient broth in the incubator shaker for 24 h. About 10% (v/v) of the B. panacihumi strain ZB1 was used to treat the raw leachate sample in the 200 mL conical flask. The leachate sample was treated anaerobically for 21 days and followed by 21-days aerobic treatment. Bioremediation Er et al. (2019)  
Ammonia 50% 
Mn 40% 
Cu 60% 
Se 52% 
Ammonia 90% Using Chlorella sp. After growing the Chlorella sp., it was inoculated for experimental studies. Bioremediation with microalgae Ouaer et al. (2017)  
COD 60% 
Ammonia 83% Using Chlamydomonas sp. SW15aRL The Chlamydomonas sp. strain SW15aRL, previously isolated from a sample of raw leachate in 2014 from a landfill site, was maintained in raw leachate or diluted raw leachate samples with a phosphate concentration adjusted to a molar N:P ratio ∼ 16:1 prior to the experiments. Bioremediation with microalgae Paskuliakova et al. (2018a)  
Leachate Pollution Index 74.7% Using garbage enzyme The garbage enzyme (fermented mixture of jaggery, organic waste and water in the ratio 1:3:10) was applied. Bioremediation/Enzyme Rani et al. (2020)  
COD 67% Using Colocasia esculenta, Gynerium sagittatum and Heliconia psittacorumPlants were transplanted in a constructed wetland with a gravity flow (Q = 0.5 m3/d). Phytoremediation/wetland Madera-Parra (2016)  
Cd 80% 
Pb 40% 
Hg 50% 
COD 75% Using Imperata cylindrica Contact time was ranged from 0 to 30 days. Phytoremediation Moktar & Tajuddin (2019)  
Pb 56.3% 
Cd 16.2% 
Zn 6.5% 
COD 81.0% Using Typha latifolia
Using Canna indica 
Flow rate of 5 L/day and a HRT of 22 days were used. Phytoremediation/wetland Yalçuk & Ugurlu (2020)  
Ammonia 60.0% 
COD 84.0% 
Ammonia 56.0% 
COD 86.7% Using Typha domingensis Plants in a reactor with two kinds of substrates including zeolite and ZELIAC. 20% of landfill leachate was mixed with 80% of domestic wastewater at optimum condition. Wetland/co-treatment Mojiri et al. (2016b)  
Ammonia 99.2% 
Colour 90.3% 
Ni 86.0% 
Cd 87.1% 
COD 93% Membrane bioreactor + Activated sludge
Membrane bioreactor + Indigenous leachate bacteria 
Membrane sequenced batch bioreactors were inoculated indigenous leachate bacteria or activated sludge. Bioreactor/Membrane Azzouz et al. (2018)  
Fe 71% 
Zn 78% 
COD 95% 
Fe 71% 
Zn 74% 
COD 63% Membrane bioreactor Organic load rate of 1.2 gCOD/L/day and sludge retention time of 80 days were selected. Bioreactor/Membrane Zolfaghari et al. (2016)  
TOC 35% 
Ammonia 98% 
Phosphorous 52% 
Ammonia >98% Membrane bioreactor DM filtration was conducted in a submerged configuration inside the aerobic bioreactor. Bioreactor/Membrane Saleem et al. (2018a)  
TN >90% 
COD 80% Air stripping, and aerobic and anaerobic biological processes For aerobic reactor, the activated sludge system was applied. And for anaerobic reactor, the upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor was used. Bioreactor/Air Stripping Smaoui et al. (2020)  
Ammonia 78% 
Colour 85.8% SBR and coagulation Sequential treatment via SBR followed by coagulation was applied. Aluminium Sulphate was used as coagulant. Bioreactor/Coagulation Yong et al. (2018)  
COD 84.8% 
Ammonia 94.2% 
TSS 91.8% 
COD >70% Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor Biomass from the bottom of a landfill leachate stabilisation pond was immobilized in polyurethane foam cubes as inoculum. Bioreactor Contrera et al. (2018)  
COD 30% Aerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) Air upflow velocity was set at 1.0–1.2 cm/s. Bioreactor Lim et al. (2016)  
Ammonia 65% 
TN 95.0% Partial-denitrification and Anammox Firstly, leachate diluted with municipal sewage. And two USB reactors were used. Integrated bioreactor Wu et al. (2018)  
TN 98.7% Partial nitrification, simultaneous anammox and denitrification During the aerobic phase, the DO was maintained below 0.5 mg/L. Integrated bioreactor Zhang et al. (2019)  
Ammonia 98% DM bioreactor DM filtration was conducted in a submerged configuration inside the aerobic bioreactor provided with a hydrostatic water head of 8 cm. And the initial inoculum was collected from the aerobic bioreactor in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Bioreactor/Membrane Saleem et al. (2018b)  
TN 90% 
COD 99% Activated sludge process/RO Biological pre-treatments followed by RO. Bioreactor/Membrane Tałałaj et al. (2019) 
Ammonia 99% 
Fe 79.7% ZELIAC (a composite adsorbent), with dosage of 3 g/L, was augmented in SBR. Powdered ZELIAC was added to the SBR. Bioreactor/Adsorption Mojiri et al. (2016a)  
Mn 73.3% 
Cd 76.9% 
Ni 79.2% 
CompoundsRemoval (mg/L) or Removal efficiency (%)Treatment methodRemarksCategoryReferences
Ammonia 94.5% Adsorption/Photo-Fenton-Ozone Pre-treatment was done via activated carbon (Sawdust) activated by H3PO4. After the adsorption process, the leachate was moved to a solar photo-Fenton/O3 process. Advanced oxidation process/Adsorption Poblete & Pérez (2020)  
COD 95.1% 
Colour 95.0% 
HA (ABS25497.9% 
COD 94% Electrocoagulation/Fiber filtration Anodic electrodes were arranged in parallel. After electrocoagulation with aluminium or iron electrodes, the treated landfill leachate was applied to two stages of fiber filters. Advanced oxidation process/Coagulation/Adsorption Li et al. (2017)  
As 87% 
Fe 96% 
86% 
COD 3,381.9 mg/L Electro-catalytic ozonation The current density was 42.1 mA/cm2, and ozone concentrations varied 100–400 mg/h. This method increased biodegradability index from 0.27 to 0.45. Advanced oxidation process Ghahrchi & Rezaee (2020)  
BOD 1,521 mg/L 
Ammonia 90% Supercritical water oxidation (ScWO)/Zeolite ScWO was operated under a pressure of 23 MPa at 600 and 700 °C, without the addition of oxidants. Zeolite was used by following ScWO. Advanced oxidation process/Adsorption (ion-exchange) Scandelai et al. (2020)  
Nitrite 100% 
Nitrate 98% 
Colour 98% 
Turbidity 98% 
COD 74% 
COD 83.3% Kefir grains/Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalytic Biological pre-treatment was done in 250 mL beakers containing 50 mL of leachate inoculated with Kefir grains. Then, leachate was moved for treatment by using Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalytic. Advanced oxidation process/biological method Elleuch et al. (2020)  
Ammonia 70.0% 
Cd 100% 
Ni 94.0% 
Zn 62.5% 
Mn 53.1% 
Cu 47.5% 
COD 68% Coagulation/Photo-Fenton Ferric chloride in acidic condition and Alum in neutral condition were used as coagulant.
The photo-Fenton process was conducted using a high-pressure mercury immersion lamp of 450 W from ACE-Glass. 
Advanced oxidation process/Coagulation Tejera et al. (2019)  
Colour 97% 
HA (UV-254) 83% 
COD 97.8% Fenton process The Fenton reaction was done by adding powdered ferrous sulphate and an appropriate H2O2:Fe2+ ratio. Advanced oxidation process Roudi et al. (2018)  
COD 90.2% Coagulation-flocculation/ Microelectrolysis-Fenton processes Landfill leachate was treated by chemical flocculation with polyaluminium chloride (PAC) as flocculant, and subsequently purified by microelectrolysis-Fenton process. Concentration of H2O2 (mg/L) varied 2.66–4. Advance oxidation process/Coagulation-flocculation Luo et al. (2019)  
HA 93.7% 
COD 88.2% Electro-ozonation/adsorbent augmented SBR At first stage, the raw concentrated leachate was treated by electro-ozonation reactor. The electro-ozone reactor was reinforced by a cross-column ozone chamber to develop ozone gas diffusion. Furthermore, the ozone reactor was supported with anode and cathode plates (Ti/RuO2–IrO2, 18 cm × 8 cm). After that leachate was moved to the second reactor (SBR + Composite adsorbent). Advanced oxidation process/biological/adsorption Mojiri et al. (2017)  
Colour 96.1% 
Ni 73.4% 
Colour >90% EO/Coagulation Al2(SO4)3 with dosage of 50 g/L was added as coagulant. And two stainless steel plates were applied as electrodes. Sodium sulphate 0.1 mol/L was added to the leachate in order to improve the conductivity of the solution. Advanced oxidation process/coagulation de Oliveira et al. (2019)  
Turbidity >90% 
Ammonia >90% 
COD 36% UVsolar/O3/H2O2//Zeolite Ozone, hydrogen peroxide and UVsolar were considered in the same reactor with leachate to produce a high amount of hydroxyl radicals, which have a short life. The was added directly. Then, treated leachate was treated by zeolite. Advanced oxidation process /adsorption Poblete et al. (2019)  
Ammonia 99% 
COD 91% UV-based sulphate radical oxidation process/Coagulation-flocculation For coagulation-flocculation (pre-treatment), ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used, with COD:FeCl3 ratio = 1:1.3, as the coagulant. Then, leachate was treated by UV-based sulphate radical oxidation process (UV-SRAOP). For UV/SRAOP, the sulphate radical was produced using UV-activated persulphate (UV/PS) and peroxymonosulphate (UV/PMS). Advanced oxidation process/Coagulation-flocculation Ishak et al. (2018)  
Colour 100% Ozone/catalyst (ZrCl4Zirconium tetrachloride was added, dosage 1.2 g (COD/ZrCl4), as a catalyst to ozone reactor. Advanced oxidation process Abu Amr et al. (2017)  
COD 88% 
Ammonia 79% 
COD 16.5% Vermiculite/Ozonation Rotating packed bed reactor was used to provide greater gas diffusion to the medium. Optimum operation conditions were as follows: rotation of 915 rpm, pH of 5.8 and ozone flow of 3.9 L/min. Biodegradability was increased (BOD5/COD), from 0.13 to 0.49 by this treatment method. Advanced oxidation process Braga et al. (2020)  
Colour 40.5% 
COD 72% MAC/Ozonation MnCe-ACs were produced by impregnating Mn and Ce oxides onto granular activated carbon surfaces. MnCe-AC was added to a cylinder and ozone was added from bottom of the reactor. Advanced oxidation process/Adsorption Wang et al. (2015a, 2015b) 
HA 91% 
COD 100% Activated carbon (Oat hulls) Oat hulls adsorbents were activated with phosphoric acid and pyrolysed (N2 atmosphere) at 350 and 500 °C. Adsorption methods Ferraz & Yuan (2020)  
Colour 100% 
COD 51.0% Activated carbon (Coffee wastes) The washed coffee was oven-dried at 105 °C for 24 h prior to activation. And then it was activated via H3PO4Adsorption methods Chávez et al. (2019)  
Ammonia 32.8% 
Chlorine 66.0% 
Bromine 81.0% 
Copper 97.1% 
COD 93.6% Zero-valent iron nanofibers/reduced ultra-large graphene oxide (ZVINFs/rULGO) At the optimum condition, pH, dosage of ZVINFs/rULGO and reaction time were 3, 1.6 g/L and 45 min. Adsorption methods Soubh et al. (2018)  
Ammonia 84.8% 
COD 77.3% Silica nanoparticle At the optimum condition, pH and dosage of adsorbent were 6 and 90 min. Adsorption methods Pavithra & Shanthakumar (2017)  
Colour 82.5% 
COD 49% Zeolite Feldspar Mineral Composite Adsorbent Samples were shaken for 5 h with 200 rpm at pH 7. Adsorption methods Daud et al. (2016)  
Ammonia 45% 
COD 65.5–92.1% Amino acid modified bentonite Batch experiments were done under contact time 20–100 min, pH 2–11 and bentonite dosage of 10–40 g/L. Adsorption methods Hajjizadeh et al. (2020)  
Pb 99.2 MS@GG MS@GG was produced by modification of melamine sponge (MS) with polydopamine (PDA) and then coat with glutathione/graphene oxide. Adsorption methods Feng et al. (2019)  
COD 53.5% Tannin-Based Natural Coagulant Tannin dosage and pH were 0.73 g and 6, respectively. Coagulation/flocculation Banch et al. (2019)  
Ammonia 91.3% 
TSS 60.2% 
Fe 89.7% 
Zn 94.6% 
Cu 94.1% 
Cr 89.9% 
Cd 17.2% 
Pb 93.7% 
As 86.4% 
COD 61.9% Polyaluminium chloride and Dimocarpus longan Seeds as Flocculants A coagulation–flocculation process using a combination of Polyaluminium chloride (PACl) as a coagulant and Dimocarpus longan seed powder (LSP) as coagulant aid was done. Coagulation/flocculation Aziz et al. (2018)  
Colour 98.8% 
SS 99.5% 
COD 66.9% Red earth as coagulant The optimal pH and the optimal coagulant dosage were 5.0 and of 9,000 mg/L, respectively. Coagulation/flocculation Zainol et al. (2018)  
Ammonia 43.3% 
Turbidity 96.2% 
COD 45% Ferric chloride as coagulant and a cationic flocculant AN 934-SH polyelectrolytes as flocculant The pH was fixed at 6.3. Optimum condition was 7.2 g/L FeCl3 and 0.2 mL/L Flocculant. Coagulation/flocculation Taoufik et al. (2018)  
COD 94.6% Using membrane processes of NF and RO A working pressure and flow rate were set at 15 bar and 750 mL/min. The surface area of the membranes was 10.7 cm. Membrane Košutić et al. (2015)  
Ammonia Up to 88.9% 
COD
BOD Ammonia 
17.5–48.5% 45.4–81.6% 50–98.8% Using Aspergillus flavus The A. flavus strain were isolated form leachate contaminated soil. Bioremediation with the fungi Zegzouti et al. (2020)  
COD 40% Using Brevibacillus panacihumi strain ZB1 The pure colonies of B. panacihumi strain ZB1 were grown in sterile nutrient broth in the incubator shaker for 24 h. About 10% (v/v) of the B. panacihumi strain ZB1 was used to treat the raw leachate sample in the 200 mL conical flask. The leachate sample was treated anaerobically for 21 days and followed by 21-days aerobic treatment. Bioremediation Er et al. (2019)  
Ammonia 50% 
Mn 40% 
Cu 60% 
Se 52% 
Ammonia 90% Using Chlorella sp. After growing the Chlorella sp., it was inoculated for experimental studies. Bioremediation with microalgae Ouaer et al. (2017)  
COD 60% 
Ammonia 83% Using Chlamydomonas sp. SW15aRL The Chlamydomonas sp. strain SW15aRL, previously isolated from a sample of raw leachate in 2014 from a landfill site, was maintained in raw leachate or diluted raw leachate samples with a phosphate concentration adjusted to a molar N:P ratio ∼ 16:1 prior to the experiments. Bioremediation with microalgae Paskuliakova et al. (2018a)  
Leachate Pollution Index 74.7% Using garbage enzyme The garbage enzyme (fermented mixture of jaggery, organic waste and water in the ratio 1:3:10) was applied. Bioremediation/Enzyme Rani et al. (2020)  
COD 67% Using Colocasia esculenta, Gynerium sagittatum and Heliconia psittacorumPlants were transplanted in a constructed wetland with a gravity flow (Q = 0.5 m3/d). Phytoremediation/wetland Madera-Parra (2016)  
Cd 80% 
Pb 40% 
Hg 50% 
COD 75% Using Imperata cylindrica Contact time was ranged from 0 to 30 days. Phytoremediation Moktar & Tajuddin (2019)  
Pb 56.3% 
Cd 16.2% 
Zn 6.5% 
COD 81.0% Using Typha latifolia
Using Canna indica 
Flow rate of 5 L/day and a HRT of 22 days were used. Phytoremediation/wetland Yalçuk & Ugurlu (2020)  
Ammonia 60.0% 
COD 84.0% 
Ammonia 56.0% 
COD 86.7% Using Typha domingensis Plants in a reactor with two kinds of substrates including zeolite and ZELIAC. 20% of landfill leachate was mixed with 80% of domestic wastewater at optimum condition. Wetland/co-treatment Mojiri et al. (2016b)  
Ammonia 99.2% 
Colour 90.3% 
Ni 86.0% 
Cd 87.1% 
COD 93% Membrane bioreactor + Activated sludge
Membrane bioreactor + Indigenous leachate bacteria 
Membrane sequenced batch bioreactors were inoculated indigenous leachate bacteria or activated sludge. Bioreactor/Membrane Azzouz et al. (2018)  
Fe 71% 
Zn 78% 
COD 95% 
Fe 71% 
Zn 74% 
COD 63% Membrane bioreactor Organic load rate of 1.2 gCOD/L/day and sludge retention time of 80 days were selected. Bioreactor/Membrane Zolfaghari et al. (2016)  
TOC 35% 
Ammonia 98% 
Phosphorous 52% 
Ammonia >98% Membrane bioreactor DM filtration was conducted in a submerged configuration inside the aerobic bioreactor. Bioreactor/Membrane Saleem et al. (2018a)  
TN >90% 
COD 80% Air stripping, and aerobic and anaerobic biological processes For aerobic reactor, the activated sludge system was applied. And for anaerobic reactor, the upflow anaerobic fixed bed reactor was used. Bioreactor/Air Stripping Smaoui et al. (2020)  
Ammonia 78% 
Colour 85.8% SBR and coagulation Sequential treatment via SBR followed by coagulation was applied. Aluminium Sulphate was used as coagulant. Bioreactor/Coagulation Yong et al. (2018)  
COD 84.8% 
Ammonia 94.2% 
TSS 91.8% 
COD >70% Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor Biomass from the bottom of a landfill leachate stabilisation pond was immobilized in polyurethane foam cubes as inoculum. Bioreactor Contrera et al. (2018)  
COD 30% Aerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) Air upflow velocity was set at 1.0–1.2 cm/s. Bioreactor Lim et al. (2016)  
Ammonia 65% 
TN 95.0% Partial-denitrification and Anammox Firstly, leachate diluted with municipal sewage. And two USB reactors were used. Integrated bioreactor Wu et al. (2018)  
TN 98.7% Partial nitrification, simultaneous anammox and denitrification During the aerobic phase, the DO was maintained below 0.5 mg/L. Integrated bioreactor Zhang et al. (2019)  
Ammonia 98% DM bioreactor DM filtration was conducted in a submerged configuration inside the aerobic bioreactor provided with a hydrostatic water head of 8 cm. And the initial inoculum was collected from the aerobic bioreactor in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Bioreactor/Membrane Saleem et al. (2018b)  
TN 90% 
COD 99% Activated sludge process/RO Biological pre-treatments followed by RO. Bioreactor/Membrane Tałałaj et al. (2019) 
Ammonia 99% 
Fe 79.7% ZELIAC (a composite adsorbent), with dosage of 3 g/L, was augmented in SBR. Powdered ZELIAC was added to the SBR. Bioreactor/Adsorption Mojiri et al. (2016a)  
Mn 73.3% 
Cd 76.9% 
Ni 79.2% 

SBR, sequencing batch reactor; TSS, total suspended solids; SS, suspended solids.

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