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Table 1

Parameters of different effluent streams

SourceTypeCharacteristic
Inorganic industries Industrial effluent having heavy metals TSS: 1,605–14,500 mg/L (Moosavirad et al. 2015)
Heavy metals: 0.5–2.5 mg/L (Moosavirad et al. 2015)
Salt ions: 1,400–11,000 mg/L (Moosavirad et al. 2015) 
Oil and gas operations Produced water TDS: 3,000–10,000 mg/L (Lawrence et al. 1995) 
Discharge from SO2 scrubber Industrial effluent TDS: 80,000–100,000 mg/L (Tun & Groth 2011)
TSS: <50 mg/L (Tun & Groth 2011) 
RO-based desalination plants Reject brine water TDS: 10,114–57,935 mg/L (Ahmed et al. 2000)
TDS: 8,747–48,618 mg/L (Ahmed et al. 2001)
TDS: 79,660 mg/L (Melián-Martel et al. 2013) 
Multi-stage flash (MSF) based desalination plants Brine TDS: 70,000 mg/L (Al Mutaz & Wagialia 1990) 
Other desalination plants Discharge brine TDS: 50,000–80,000 mg/L (Hashim & Hajjaj 2005) 
Wastewater treatment plant Municipal wastewater TSS: 1,367–1,939 mg/L (Cartagena et al. 2013)
COD: 1,868–2,540 mg/L (Cartagena et al. 2013) 
Industry Saline water TDS: 48,000–80,000 mg/L (Tuin et al. 2006)
COD: 53,000–89,000 mg/L (Tuin et al. 2006) 
Petrochemical industry Spent brine from ion-exchange regenerant and RO TDS: 30,000 mg/L (Osman et al. 2019)
TOC: 60 mg/L (Osman et al. 2019) 
SourceTypeCharacteristic
Inorganic industries Industrial effluent having heavy metals TSS: 1,605–14,500 mg/L (Moosavirad et al. 2015)
Heavy metals: 0.5–2.5 mg/L (Moosavirad et al. 2015)
Salt ions: 1,400–11,000 mg/L (Moosavirad et al. 2015) 
Oil and gas operations Produced water TDS: 3,000–10,000 mg/L (Lawrence et al. 1995) 
Discharge from SO2 scrubber Industrial effluent TDS: 80,000–100,000 mg/L (Tun & Groth 2011)
TSS: <50 mg/L (Tun & Groth 2011) 
RO-based desalination plants Reject brine water TDS: 10,114–57,935 mg/L (Ahmed et al. 2000)
TDS: 8,747–48,618 mg/L (Ahmed et al. 2001)
TDS: 79,660 mg/L (Melián-Martel et al. 2013) 
Multi-stage flash (MSF) based desalination plants Brine TDS: 70,000 mg/L (Al Mutaz & Wagialia 1990) 
Other desalination plants Discharge brine TDS: 50,000–80,000 mg/L (Hashim & Hajjaj 2005) 
Wastewater treatment plant Municipal wastewater TSS: 1,367–1,939 mg/L (Cartagena et al. 2013)
COD: 1,868–2,540 mg/L (Cartagena et al. 2013) 
Industry Saline water TDS: 48,000–80,000 mg/L (Tuin et al. 2006)
COD: 53,000–89,000 mg/L (Tuin et al. 2006) 
Petrochemical industry Spent brine from ion-exchange regenerant and RO TDS: 30,000 mg/L (Osman et al. 2019)
TOC: 60 mg/L (Osman et al. 2019) 

TDS, total dissolved solids; TSS, total suspended solids; COD, chemical oxygen demand; TOC, total organic carbon.

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