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Table 2

Classification of saline effluent treatment methods

Membrane-based methods 
  • Filtration (micro-, ultra-, nano-)

  • Reverse osmosis (RO)

  • Electrodialysis (ED)

  • Membrane bio-reactor/filtration

  • Membrane distillation (MD)

  • Forward osmosis (FO)

 
Thermal operations/methods 
  • Multi-effect distillation (MED)

  • Multi-stage flash (MSF)

  • Mechanical vapor compression (MVC)

  • Spray evaporation/drying (SE/D)

  • Freeze crystallization (FC)

  • Eutectic freeze crystallization (EFC)

 
Chemical conversion processes 
  • Ion-exchange

  • Precipitation of insoluble compounds

  • Bio-oxidation

  • Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs)

  • Coagulation/electrocoagulation

  • Chemical softening

 
Biological methods 
  • Aerobic treatment

  • Anaerobic treatment

  • Nitrification and denitrification

  • Biological reduction

 
Membrane-based methods 
  • Filtration (micro-, ultra-, nano-)

  • Reverse osmosis (RO)

  • Electrodialysis (ED)

  • Membrane bio-reactor/filtration

  • Membrane distillation (MD)

  • Forward osmosis (FO)

 
Thermal operations/methods 
  • Multi-effect distillation (MED)

  • Multi-stage flash (MSF)

  • Mechanical vapor compression (MVC)

  • Spray evaporation/drying (SE/D)

  • Freeze crystallization (FC)

  • Eutectic freeze crystallization (EFC)

 
Chemical conversion processes 
  • Ion-exchange

  • Precipitation of insoluble compounds

  • Bio-oxidation

  • Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs)

  • Coagulation/electrocoagulation

  • Chemical softening

 
Biological methods 
  • Aerobic treatment

  • Anaerobic treatment

  • Nitrification and denitrification

  • Biological reduction

 
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