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Table 3

General characteristics of pressure-driven membrane processes for wastewater treatment (Gude 2017)

Membrane processParticle capture sizeTypical contaminants removedTypical operation pressure range
Microfiltration (MF) 0.1–10 μm Suspended solids, bacteria, protozoa 0.1–2 bar 
Ultra-filtration (UF) 0.01–0.1 μm Colloids, proteins, polysaccharides, most bacteria, some viruses 1–5 bar 
Nano-filtration (NF) 0.001 μm Viruses, natural organic matter, multivalent ions 5–20 bar 
Reverse osmosis (RO) 0.001 μm Almost all impurities, including monovalent ions 10–100 bar 
Membrane processParticle capture sizeTypical contaminants removedTypical operation pressure range
Microfiltration (MF) 0.1–10 μm Suspended solids, bacteria, protozoa 0.1–2 bar 
Ultra-filtration (UF) 0.01–0.1 μm Colloids, proteins, polysaccharides, most bacteria, some viruses 1–5 bar 
Nano-filtration (NF) 0.001 μm Viruses, natural organic matter, multivalent ions 5–20 bar 
Reverse osmosis (RO) 0.001 μm Almost all impurities, including monovalent ions 10–100 bar 
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