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Table 4

Maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals (MAC)

ElementMaximum acceptable concentration in drinking water (Council Directive 98/83EC), μg/LTolerable intake level stated by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
Nickel 20 2.8 μg/kg of body weight per day (EFSA CONTAM 2015) 
Copper 2,000 for adults 1.3 (women) and 1.6 (men) mg/day (EFSA NDA 2015) 
Lead 10 NA (EFSA 2012a) 
Zinc NI (5000afor adults 7.5–16.3 mg/day (depends on gender and phytate intake) (EFSA NDA 2014a) 
Cadmium 2.5 μg/kg body weight per week (EFSA 2012b) 
Chromium 50 NA (EFSA NDA 2014b) 
Arsenic 10 NA (EFSA CONTAM 2009) 
ElementMaximum acceptable concentration in drinking water (Council Directive 98/83EC), μg/LTolerable intake level stated by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
Nickel 20 2.8 μg/kg of body weight per day (EFSA CONTAM 2015) 
Copper 2,000 for adults 1.3 (women) and 1.6 (men) mg/day (EFSA NDA 2015) 
Lead 10 NA (EFSA 2012a) 
Zinc NI (5000afor adults 7.5–16.3 mg/day (depends on gender and phytate intake) (EFSA NDA 2014a) 
Cadmium 2.5 μg/kg body weight per week (EFSA 2012b) 
Chromium 50 NA (EFSA NDA 2014b) 
Arsenic 10 NA (EFSA CONTAM 2009) 

NA, not applicable; NI, not indicated.

aEPA (2018).

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