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Table 6

Chitosan dose and pH required to reach points of zero charge (PZCs) during coagulation (test water 5 NTU)

ChitosanTurbidity sourceZeta potential of chitosan (mV) (95%CI, n = 9)Chitosan dose at PZC (mg/L)pH at PZC
5,000 Da Kaolinite 6.61 (5.28) Not measureda 7.44 
100,000 Da Kaolinite 88.93 (10.88) 4.61 7.2 
100,000 Da Bentonite 88.93 (10.88) 2.62 7.5 
95% DD Kaolinite 19.84 (12.00) 1.88 7.3 
70% DD Kaolinite 41.98 (2.73) 2.15 7.2 
Carboxymethyl Kaolinite −29.64 (2.20) Not measuredb 8.08 
HCl Kaolinite 30.37 (10.07) 2.19 7.2 
ChitosanTurbidity sourceZeta potential of chitosan (mV) (95%CI, n = 9)Chitosan dose at PZC (mg/L)pH at PZC
5,000 Da Kaolinite 6.61 (5.28) Not measureda 7.44 
100,000 Da Kaolinite 88.93 (10.88) 4.61 7.2 
100,000 Da Bentonite 88.93 (10.88) 2.62 7.5 
95% DD Kaolinite 19.84 (12.00) 1.88 7.3 
70% DD Kaolinite 41.98 (2.73) 2.15 7.2 
Carboxymethyl Kaolinite −29.64 (2.20) Not measuredb 8.08 
HCl Kaolinite 30.37 (10.07) 2.19 7.2 

aReached ζ −2.14 mV at 50 mg/L.

bReached ζ −26 mV at 50 mg/L.

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